PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR POLICE
Edward W. Ruehrwein
Department of Physical Education
In Candidacy for the Degree of
Bachelor of Physical Education
Thirty- third Annual Coxmnen cement of
THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION COLLEGE
Chicago -------- Lake Geneva
19 2 3
BENEDICTINE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
IN THE KINDLON HALL Of LEARNING
5700 COLLEGE ROAD
LISLE IL 60532-0900
II. OBJECTIVE OP ?KYSIC/iL EDUCATION:
1. General Education 1
2. Physical Education 2
3. Physical Education Beyond the School Period 2
4. Setting Up a Physical Ideal 3
A. An Ideal Product of tne Cirri culiim
B. The Ideal T3ecomes a Policeiiian
C. The Policeiaan as Ke is To-day
III. OCCUPATION AND HEALTH:
1.1. Hygiene and Health 15
2. Causes of Disease 15
3. Physical Handicaps of the Police 18
4. Preoccupation 25
5. Health Education 27
IV. POLICE FUNCTION:
1. Police Function Defined 29
2. Ancient Police 29
3. Despotic Government 29
4. Relation of Police to Public 30
5. Function of Police in United States 30
6. First Modem Police Force 31
7. Ueaning of Term "Police" 31
8. Real Opportunity for Public Service 32
V. PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE POLICEMAN:
1. Specific Abilities; Cases '.Vhere Needed 34
2. Influence and Effect of These Activities 37
VI: SELECTING THE PATROLMAN:
1. Application 46
2. Basic RequireiaentB 46
3. Medical Exa;iiination 48
4. Siimmary of Causes for Rejection 51
5. Physical Tests 55
VII. PHYSICAL EFFICrcNCY:
1. Msui Vs. Machine - 59
2. The Human Machine 59
3. Basis of Military Efficiency 61
4. Police'.ian and Soldier Alike 61
5. Civil Service Physical Standard for Police 62
6. Civil Service Efficiency 64
7. Physical Efficiency Tests 66
VIII. SARGENT'S TEST:
1. Police Department of Chicago 68
2. Police Field Day 68
3. Explanation of Sargent's Test 73
4. Charts 76
IX. CONCLUSION REGARDING PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE
POLICEMAN OF CHICAGO: 96
X. THE Y. M. C. A. AND THE POLICE 101
PHYSICAL EDUCATIOH FOR POLICE .
The aim of tnis txiesis is to analyse the physical
life of the policeman of Chicago in tne terms of Physical
"Education with the ultimate idea of furnisning sound prin-
ciples upon which could be built a program of Physical
Education that would be beneficial to the men of the Police
Department and to the Department itself.
No particular fad or system is laid down as the
system of Physical Education for the Police Department of
Chicago, but there are here introduced principles of Physi-
cal Education which would simplify the building of a program
of Physical Education for the rolice.
An attempt is made to get down to tiie fundamental
physical characteristics and abilities as set forth by
Professor BobbitL in his Educational Monograph "Curriculum-
Making in Los Angeles". A policeman, perfect physically,
is set up as an ideal for the Police Department. Ho
attempt is made to elaborate on other than the purely
physical values of Physical Education. Other values are
to be incidental, so as not to lead off inlo the social
and moral realms of Physical Education.
In analyzing the activities of the policeioan, first
hand experience has been used wherever it was possible.
Newspaper accounts, oral questionings ana personal observa-
tions are the only sources of information available in many
instances, and this is modestly presented for what it may
Physical tests have been made on a scientific basis
and the charts drawn with the greatest care so as to set
forth as clear as possible the significance of tiie tests.
No foredrawn conclusions preceded tne making of the tests.
The conclusions reached have been drawn only from the
actual results of the experiments and the limited amoiint
of information available in regard to the individuals.
Therefore* no general principles may be laid down from
these experiments, but undoubtedly they set forth some
idea of what actually may be found in applying tiiese tests
to larger groups and securing more detailed infori^^tion
concerning their habits of living.
The interest ana co-operation of the following
members of the Police Department of Chicago gives great
promise for the future of Pi^sical Education in its re-
lation to the Police, and special thanJcs is hereby given
to Chief of Police Charles C. Fitzmorris, Captain Allman,
Lieut. McCarthy, and Sgts. Sloop and Kellman.
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II. OBJECTIVE OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION.
1. General Education.
Modem education must look to the life of the com-
munity by way of discoTering its specific objective. It
must aim to produce results. Professor Bobbitt states in
his "Curriculiim-Uaking in Los Angeles" that "these results
are human abilities, habits, attitudeSf appreciationsi
skills, powers of judgment, personal characteristics of
▼arious kinds, etc."
^Dewey states that "the psychological and the social
sides of life are organically related, and tiriat education
cannot be regarded as a comproaxise between the two, or a
Buperimposition of the one upon the other". The same may
be said about the physical and psychological aspects of
life. However, for convenience, Bobbitt has classified
the abilities and characteristics under ten different
headings* as follows:
I. Social Intercommunication, mainly language.
II. The Development and Maintenance of One's
III. Unspecialized Practical Labors.
IV. The Labors of One's Calling.
y. The Activities of the Efficient Citizen.
VI. Activities Involved in One's General Social
Relationships and Behavior.
1. Dewey - "How We Think".
VII. Leisure Occupation, Recreation, AmuBements.
VIII. Develcpment and Maintenance of One's Mental
IX. Religious Activities.
X. Parental Activities, the Upbringing of Children,
the Maintenance of the Home Life.
2. Physical Education.
Physical Education has been defined as txie science
of the relation of mind and body to each other and to tlie
habits and environment which effect them. It deald with
the health of body and mind, education of body and mind
and development of our instincts.
It is impossible to separate Physical Education
from General Education. It is a part of education which
has its physical, mental, social and religious aspects.
To reach into all of tx^ese and interpret them in the life
of any individual would be a very complicated and lengthy
task, and it is for this reason tliat the author is deal-
ing specifically with the physical aspect of Physical
3. Physical Education Beyond the School Period.
A casual observer of most of our physical education
magazines would be very likely to get the conception of
Physical Education as something which is almost entirely
concerned with the development of the boys and girls of
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the school age. There is quite a bit of truth In this
supposition I and, there are reasons for placing this em-
phasis on the deyelopment of the children while in school.
But there is every reason why we must not stop when the
child leaves school. Compare the number of years that
the individual spends during the school period with the
number of years that he spends in earning his daily bread
after he leaves sciriool. It will be discovered that the
average length of time spent covering the school period
is very insignificant in comparison with the remaining
period of one* a life. The average child does not stay in
school long enough to be fully developed nor to finish
4. Setting Up a Physical Ideal.
A plan for Los Angeles Curriculum-MaJcing, as
worked out by Professor Bobbitt. would give us an ideal
citizen if the individual would complete the curriculum.
A. An Ideal Product of the Curriculum.
To illustrate the point just mentionedi a modem
Physical Director might look ahead twenty or thirty years
and see a physically perfect product of the Los An<ieles
School Curriculiim. Our popular magazines would be apt to
write it up in this fashion:
Los Angeles, Calif. - 1950.
Annual Report of Board of Education.
The case of John Smith, one of the most efficient and
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prominent citizens has been investigated to aiscover
the secrets of his powerful physique, physical strength
and endurance, his perfect health and wonderful achieve-
ments. Almost every attribute has been traced to the
Los Angeles School Curriculum. The following are the
records as we find them:
1. The Doctor, when handing John over to his Llother
on the day that he came into this world, said,
"ICrs. Smith, it certainly gives me great pleasure
to hand over to you such a youngster. His phy-
sique is as sound as a dollar and as free from
structural or functional defect as the air. Ex-
aminations have proven every tissue sound and
every system of organs likewise. I know you well
enough, Mrs. Smith, to say that I have the utmost
confidence in your ability to do your part in
teaching him the proper health habits as soon as
he is able to understand."
2. "John Smith - Vaccinated" appears on the school
3. The school goes on record as stating that it had
the cooperation of the parents in insisting on
"right physical living" throughout the twenty-four
hours of every day, seven days a week.
4. The teacher^, under whose supervision John came
daily, were well versed in Physical Education and
erery opportunity in school was utilized in physi-
5. The principles of:
Ventilation, Lighting, Temperature, Physical
Activity, Diversified physical Experience,
Noon-day meal, etc..
were taught and their values emphasized.
6. Records show yearly physical exajninations of John
Smith, with recommendations as to how to correct
certain weaknesses due to using certain sets of
musolea too much amd other sets not enough. The
Physical Director remembers John as one who was
always eager and happy in doing muscular exercises
and one who had a deep interest and skill in all
major and. minor games.
7. The notes which John took during his Senior year
in High School in a course on Physical Education
given hy the Physical Director shows that he was
given the facts in support of life-long continuing
habits of vigorous muscular exercise in such a
manner that he was capable of understanding.
8. A graphic chart, which was introduced by the
Physical Director and kept by Johni shows how he
kept check upon himself until habits, attitudes
and understandings were thoroughly formed.
9, A thoroueh e;ca::iination Jiaa been laade of John
Smith, age Uxirty, with the following results:
C haracteristicf^ and Abilities of John Smith . A^, e 30.
1. A sound and well-proportioned pAysique .
2. A body that is capable of a continuous maintained
reservoir of vital enerz-y . physical stren^^th and
enduranc e and posseseino; physical resiliency and
3. Make food contribute maximum amount of nourishment ;
keep the body mechanism properly oxY/^enated : util-
ize muscular exercise as a life-long meajis of
maintaining a high level of piiysical vitality.
4. And disposition to engage witii pleasure and profit
in a varied repertoire of ^ames i sj^orts, athletics ,
etc., and to engage in unspecialized productive
5. Employ set tin/?- up exercises .
6. Carry one's self, to move and act with ease , grace ,
and precision .
7. Make one's various inental and emotional states and
activities contribute in maximum degree to one's
8. Make one's sleep contribute in maximum measure to
the development and maintenance of a high level
of physical vitality.
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^» Rel^^t physically and mentally at proper times and
in proper ways.
10. Protect one* 8 self from micro-organisms ; deal with
them and their products effectively in case of
11. Take proper precautions against spread of disease
in cases of illness in the household.
12. Rightly control the factors involved in the main-
tenajice of hody temperatures .
13. Provide the most favorable conditions for the
elimination from the tissues, organs and body in
general of all harmful or needless substances and
14. Control one's relation to sunlight so as to secure
maximum benefits therefrom.
15. Maintain postures conducive to the best physical
16. Secure that variety or diversity of physical ex-
periences necessary for maximiun well-being.
17. Maintain that proper balance between excessive
regularity and an excessive Irregularity which
is necessaury for maximum physical well-being.
18. T7ork hard for a long period of time and still
keep physically fit.
19. Draw up an individuaa program of work , play ,
rest, sleep , meals , etc., best suited for one's
physical nature and capacity; and currently keep
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it adapted to the ever changing conditione of
one* 8 situation*
20. Develop and maintain, aa well as conditione per-
mit, the beauty of the physique.
21. Protect one's self from preventable accidents .
22. Deal with conditions produced by many kinds of
common accidents .
23. Protect from dust, smoke, noxious gases, etc.
24. Care for: teeth, eyes, nose, ear, throat, skin,
hair, scalp, nails and feet.
25. Keep heart and blood vessels in normal working
26. Control sejo - functions In the interest of physi-
cal and social well-being.
27. Keep reasonably well informed, in the decree to
be expected of a layman, as to the discoveries
of science in the fields of health conservation
28. Recognize the symptoms of common ailments in
their incipient stages.
29. Co-operate effectively within one's occupation-
al field in providing wholesome working con-
30. Perform one's civic functions in co-operation
with and in support amd control of all public
agencies engaged in promoting the general
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B. The Ideal Becomes a Policeman.
Due to the fact that John Smith has been a very
efiicient and successful policeman aiid that he possesoes
the desirahle pliyoical abilities, the Committee recom-^ends
that he be accepted as the Ideal Policexaan.
B. The Policeman aa He is To-day.
In tlae preceding section wic have set ur. an ideal
policeman. Using the standard as set for t^e ideal police-
man, we will now attempt to measure our policeman of to-
day. "Out of 1,395 men passing the examination for Police
in Chicago in 1916-17 and 19, 35 had attended high school,
10 college and 1,352 Just common school." ^ Can tiiis ideal
be reached by one having only the common school training?
An average policeman of Chicago has been chosen as the in-
dividual to be tested. Tfe will call this man "Jim Jones",
an officer of the Chicago Police Department. The test
shows the following results:
1. Physique. Protruding abdomen, overweight.
2. Troubled with colds showing low vitality, great
effort to run 100 yards, and not able to chin
more than several times, indicating lack of
endurajice and strength.
3. Digestion poor due to constant violation of
recognized rules of healtli. Peeling tired most
of the tiiae, showing condition of fatigue and
lack of vigorous exercise.
1. Annual Report of civil Service Comn. City of Chicago.
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4. Eas the ability to engage In sports and ath-
letics, but allows other things to distract
from these profitable and pleasurable actiritieg.
5. Does not have the ability to employ setting-up
6. Rather uncertain in morements that are a trifle
out of order of the regular habits.
7. Does not hare full control over his temper.
8. Hot able to get the proper sleep because of the
irregular hours of work and having to sleep in
the day time much of the time.
9. Hot much trouble relaxing either physically nor
10. Is not familiar with the modem methods of pro-
tecting against micro-organisms.
11. Does not take all precaution against the spread
12. Is fairly capable of controlling body tempera-
13. Elimination: Constipated very often, condition
of over- fatigue indicating that elimination of
needless by-products of oxidation which takes
place in the tissue is not thorough.
14. Gets plenty of sunlight when on day duty, but
].aok of -it when on night duty which amounts to
about eight months a year.
ls, Does not always maintain proper posture; likes
to lean on something when standing up.
16. Physical experience somewhat divers if ied, but
not as much as desirable.
17. The nature of the work with its irregularity
of living will not permit a proper balance be-
tween excessive regularity and excessive irreg-
ularity which is necessary for maximum physical
18. His physical condition will not peimit hard
physical work for a long period of time.
19. The program which he set for himself, or the
groove into which he fits, is rather narrow for
one who has his opportunity for broadening.
Play is given no place in the program. The pro-
gram consists mainly of: work, rest, meals and
20. Does not have the ability to maintain the phy-
sique which he had when he entered the force.
21. Is alert enough to prevent preventable accidents.
22. Is capable of dealing with conditions produced
by some kinds of comruon accidents.
23. Has sense enough to keep out of dust, smoke,
noxious gases, etc.
24. Not very- careful in the care of the teeth. Does
not know the value of regular physical examina-
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tlons in keeping the eyesi noeet Bar, throat,
akin and feet in healthy condition. Capable of
keeping hair and scalp in good condition.
25. Does not realize the importance in keeping the
heart and blood vessela in normal working con-
26. Rather loose in sex matters, with little thought
to social well-being.
27. Not well informed as to the discoveries of science
in the field of health conservation and promotion
as one who is supposed to enforce certain health
measures should be.
23. Hot capable of recognizing the symptoms of all
common ailments in their recipient stages.
29. He co-operates effectively In trying to provide
wholesome working conditions.
30. Not greatly interested in the general physical
welfare of the community.
In comparing Jim Jones with John Smith, we find
that the latter falls short by far of the standards set
by tiie former.
It is not the intention of the writer to destruct-
ively criticise the policeman of to-day, but ratner to
show what aeems to be his weak points so that in building
a program of physical education due emphasis might be
placed on the development auid maintenance of certain abil-
ities and characteristics.
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It 1b an attempt to discover the forces or energiee
that are threatening the policeiiian. Dewey * in "Democracy and
Education" gives os a very enlightening view of Education
as a means of securing better control over the energies that
would otherwise use up the being* "The most notable dis-
tinction between living and insnimate beings is that the
former m:xintain themselves by renewal. A stone wnen struct
resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of
the blow struck, it reinains outwardly unchanged. OtherwisOf
it is shattered into smaller bits. Hever does the stone
att^apt to react in such a way that it may maintain itself
against the blow, much less so as to render the blow a con-
tributing factor to its own continued action. While the
living thing may easily be crushed by superior force, it
none the less tties to turn the energy which acts upon it
into mesuis of its own further existence. If it cannot do
so, it does not split into smaller pieces (at least in. .the
higher forms of life) , but loses its identity as a living
thing. As long as it endures, it struggles to use surround-
ing energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, mois-
ture and the material of the soil. To say that it uses tnem
is to say that it turns them into means of its own conser-
vation. As long as it is growing the energy it expends in
thus turning the environment to account is more than ojm-
pensated for by tlie return it gets. In this sense of
thinking, we ;aight say that education is a means of se-
curing better control over the energies that would other-
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wiae use up the being."
What are these forces or energies that are threat-
ening human beings? How can the policeman maintain himself
against the blows, and turn them into contributing factors
for his own continued action?
The answer to the first question has been attempted
in this chapter, while the second will be discussed in
the following chapters. ,;- .
OCCUPATIOH AHD HEALTH.
1. Hygiene and Health.
Before oonsidering the relation of Occupation to
Health, It would be well to get a sound understanding of
Hygiene is a term used to denote the science, art,
theory, and practice of the preservation and promotion of
human health. The aim of hygiene is to make growth more
perfect, life more vigorous, decay less rapid and death
Health is that condition of the body in which it
functions normally and without manifestation of discomfort.
Disease is the imperfect performance of one or more
bodily functions because of injured structure of corres-
ponding organs, resulting in the manifestation of dis-
2. Causes of Disease.
Some of the principle causes of disease, as pre-
sented by Bergy in "Principles of Hygiene", are, as
1. Exposure to heat and cold.
2. Prolonged absence of sunlight.
3. Deficient ventilation.
4. Excessive kinds of food or drink.
1. Class Notes - Dr. Reed , University of Chicago.
(Probably from Bergy - "Principles of Hygiene")
5, Continued use of a diet which is deficient in
one or more food elements which enter into
the composition of the body.
6. Abnormal positions maintained over period of
?• Inefficient wearing apparel for parte of the
8. Deprivation of food or drink.
(b) External Appearsuice.
14. Conjugal Conditions.
15. Environmental Conditions:
(c) Tater Supply.
(f) Dampness of soil ajid climate.
The causes of disease Just mentioned are called
the "Predisposing Causes". They aire the causes with which
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we are more apt to deal, and for this reason no time will
be demoted to the "Exciting Causes***
"In our opinion nearly all disease is traceable
in its ultimate causation to the individual, to the Tiola-
tion, through lack of understanding or wilfullness, of
well-recognized laws of health or hygiene; refusal to use
the facilities for correction of physical conditions which
will become disabling; excess in personal conduct; and a
most important factor, the inherent limitations of vitality
which vary in Individuals from those merely able to keep
alive the spark of life to those who are of the most robust
and vigorous type." •'■
"The foregoing is not intended as a complete state-
ment of the causes of disease and responsibility therefor,
but merely to illustrate what is indubitably the fact that
causation or responsibility for disease cannot be ration-
ally assigned on the basis of a classification of diseases,
with the possible exception of diseases to wnich workers
in an occupation are exposed and which are not found among
those who are not ent^aged in that occupation." 2
The writer has no facts which would brand £iny
disease, or diseases, as being found among policemen more
than any other group of workers. However, he has observed
in his study of the Police of Chicago that there are a
certain number of common weaknesses among the Police.
1. 2. Illinois Health Insurance Report - pp. 156.
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The policeman is on his feet the greater part of the
day. Many of them are overweight, and, besides carrying
this excess weight, they hare their clubs, black-jack, re-
volvers, cartridges, etc. to weight them down.
McKenzie in "Exercise and Medicine*', pp. 371, gives
us the following as an explanation of foot troubles. "The
advantage of the upright position is somewhat offset by
the frequency of deformities due to yielding of the struc-
tures concerned with support. The body may yield at the
spine which becomes bent auid distorted; at the knee-joints,
which knock together; or at the arch of the foot, which
becomes broken down and flattened, causing the deformity
known as pes planus, flat-foot, everted foot or pronated
During the period of training the police for th«
Police Field Day, the writer had it impressed upon his
mind that the Police, as a group* have weakened arches or
3. Physical Handicaps of the Police.
(a) Flat Feet.
At one time or auiother, almost every man who was
out for training for the Police Field Day from the
Snglewood Station Track Team was hindered by pains in
the feet. And these men were all the younger men of the
Department. It would be safe to say that if the older
men would have come out we would have found considerably
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more of such foot trouble. This, then, may be put down
as one common deformity, or weakness of the Polloe.
(b) Over- Fatigue; Cause and Remedy.
Tatigue is another condition found among Police.
One of the reasons for this is lack of vigorous exercise.
The physiological explanation of this is, as follows:
"The incessant contraction of muscles, which goes
on even when the body is apparently at rest, while it pro-
duces only small amounts of fatigue- toxins, may result in
even larger accumulation of these poisons in the muscles
than active exercise, on account of the stai^nation of
lymph and blood, both local Guid general."
"Standing still or walking along leisurely then may
be understood as producing a condition of fatigue. How-
ever, the moment that active muscular movement of any sort
begins, the whole body literally becomes the heart, the
muscles by contracting pump out of themselves the blood
and lymph and at the same time, by pressing upon the veins,
drive the blood towards the heart."
"Therefore, men who are not, in the ordinary accept-
ation of the term, worked very hard, from the point of view
of muscular energy, but are kept constantly moving about
on their feet, as the policeman walks his beat or stands
on the corner, will find their protection against over-
fatigue and breakdown in the form of vigorous exercise.
This exercise can be made very enjoyable as well as
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The traffic officer, who atande in one spot, has a
haurd and wearing exercise. One only has to try standing
for a long period of time and he will realize it is exer-
cise. The older physicist believed that the natural
condition of matter was rest. Now we know tiiat it's natural
state is in motion in a right line, ana that it will per-
petually continue in this, unless forcibly brougiit to a
stauid-still. Something the same curious reversal is true
of muscle. It*s natural state is movement, not rest.
Nature's real recuperator of muscular vigoe is not rest,
but play, with ouch intervals of sleep as this brings.
(c) Age and Weight; Influence on Longevity.
"Life insurance experience has clearly shown that
weight, especially in relation to age, is an important
factor in influencing longevity. Except in the earlier
ages of life, overweight (reckoned relatively to the
average for that age) is a more unfavorable condition, in
its influence on longevity, than underweight."
"The lowest mortality is found among those who
average, as a group, a few pounds over the average weight
before the age of 35, and a few pounds under the average
weight after 35. That is, aifter the age of 35, overweight
is associated with an increasingly high death rate, and
at middle life it becomes a real menace to health, either
by reason of its mere presence as a ph^'sical handicap or
1. Dr. Hutchinson - "Exercise and Health".
- 21 -
because of the faulty living habits that are often respon-
sible for its development. After the age of 35 is reached,
15 to 20 pounds over the average weight should prompt one
to take careful measures for reducing weight." ^
Habits should be formed that will keep the weight
down automatically, instead of relying upon intermittent
attempts that are more than likely to fail. Mo matter how
well one feels, one should take steps to keep out of the
class that life insurance companies have found to be un-
desirable as risks.
Constant vigilance is necessary, yet it is worth
while when one considers the inconvenience as well as the
menace of obesity.
(d) Sedentary Workers.
The sedentary brain worker often gains weight with-
out eating very much. What he really needs is exercise to
use up the food, but if he will not exercise, then he
should reduce his food even below the small amount on
which he gains weight*
(e) Fuel Intake vs. Obesity.
A fat man requires less fuel in proportion to his
weight than an ordinary man. Fat represents "dead weight*.
The actual amount of muscle may be more (even less) than in
another man who tips the scale at a lower figiire. As men
grow older they tend to less and less muscular exertion and
yet their appetites often continue keen, so that they keep
1. Pisher and Fisk - "How to Live", pp. 30.
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up eating habits formed In more actiye years, with the
result that they steadily take in more fuel than they use
up) and gradually Increase in weight* Too much fat is a
disauiTantaige, as it is apt to interfere wiUi the healthy
play of the muscles, causing them to deteriorate and laying
the foundation for troubles with the heart. Bxcessively fat
people also seem predisposed toward gout and obesity. It is
usually much easier to keep the weight from becoming excess-
ive than to reduce fat after it has been stored. Hence, it
should be borne in mind that persistent gain in weight In a
healthy person means that he has been overeating and he
should make consistent effort to lower his food intake. In-
creasing exercise will help to burn fat, but it is likely
to stimulate the appetite, so that accurate measurement and
systematic limilation of the fuel value of the diet is
A chief ajid common error of diet consists In using
too much protein. Instead of ten calories out of every one
hundred, many Americans use something like twenty to thirty,
more than double what is known as ample. This excessive
proportion of protein is usually doe Ux the extensive use
of meat and eggs, although precisely the same dietetic error
is sometimes committed by tiie excessive use of other high-
protein foods, such as fish, shell fish, foul, clieese, ^qsjib
and peas, or even in exceptional cases, by the use of foods
less high in protein when not offset by any other foods.
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(f) Age and Activity.
"Generally speaJcing" , says Arnold Bennett, "happi-
neas is the oonaequence of health, not of righteous living
and a clear conscience." "Sxcept in the middle of the night,
it is not easy to be honest with yourself." "The man of
middle-age has a tremendous advantage over the youth in any
crisis. He has experience." . ^
Every policeman should want to keep young, without
being ridiculous as an adherent of eternal-youth. A great
many of the police of Chicago are in their middle an^ea when
there are various changes in the human machine and the work
which it can perform. Tlierefore, the onset of middle age
is a matter which deserves our serious attention if we wish
to make the best of life; for it is not enough to make the
best of one-half of life; we should make the beet of both
No amount of will power and pretense will obviate
the inescapable effects of time. Time always wins, but it
wins least against those who treat it respectfully and Bin-
cerely, and most against those who scorn it. Now this is
not an argument in favor of an early surrender to time. A
great many individuals fall too easily suid there are a
sufficient number of such individuals in the Police Depart-
ment. They allow their habits to become fixed. According
to statements of a number of middle-aged officers they have
surrendered to Father Time and are in their early forties.
They put in their working hours policing their beat, go
home for Lieals, sit around and read the paper, smoking
their pipe of peace, seeing occasional shows and sleeping
the balance of the time. They become hypochondriacal and
generally fussy; they seize upon the distant prospect of
age as an excuse for partially abandoning the gieat struggle.
It is Just as foolish to sit back and wait for old age as it
is to seek the youth which is physically beyond your power.
In this mighty affair of the merging of one age into another,
common sense and moderation should preside over the pre-
The officials in charge of the Police Field Day did
not ask an officer whj had been in service for ten or fif-
teen years to compete with the officers who had only been
in service three or four years or less. On the other hand,
they did not say to these older men "you are too old to
compete in these games - physical activities are for the
young men only". Special events were put on the program to
encourage these middle-aged men to get into the games.
Greater value should be placed upon these special events
and careful study made of the physical capacity of an aver-
age middle-aged man. As Arnold Bennett has said, "It
follows that a man who (as the French say) is 'between two
ages' , owes himself a serious duty: namely, to take stock
of himself, to find, out as well as he can wxiat his resources
and prospects are worth. This stock tsUting should be two-
- 25 -
fold, physical and mental, (I use the word 'mental* for
want of a better word, and use it in the broadest sense).
The basis of the total individual is physical. The physical
and mental react on each other. But the physical has more
effect on the mental than the mental on the physical." ^
Harry Emerson Fosdick, in an article (Twelve Tests
of Character) written for one of our most popular magazines
(The Ladies' Home Journal), discusses "Preoccupation" and
says that it is the most popular form of failure. "The
basic facts about us which make such promiscuous preoccupa-
tion ruinous lie here; Our life's time and our life's
energy are limited, "^e are like street cars; we caji hold
our quota and no more. Then all seats are taken, the
standing room absorbed, and the "Car Full" sign put up in
front, whoever hails us next, though he be the most prom-
inent citizen in the community, he be passed by. It never
was so easy to fail in this particular way as it is to-day.
There may have been times when life was sluggish and folks
could drift listlessly through apatnetic years. But to-
day the currents of life are swift and stimulating, the
demands of life are absorbing. There are more things to
to than we ever shall get done; there are more books to
read than we can ever look at; tliere are more avenues of
enjoyment than we ever shall find time to travel. Life
appeals to us from innumerable directions, crying "Attend
- 26 -
to me here* I In consequence, we are continually tempted
to dabble. We liter our lives with indiscriminate
One of the most difficult problems that I have found
in dealing with the police is that they are preoccupied.
They feel that there are more important things to be done
than to give time to the maintenance of pxiysical fitness.
Many of them, or we might say most of them are indifferent
as to physical recreation. The comrhon expression, "that
athle.tic stuff and exercise is a good thing for these new
men tliat we just got on t/ie force" I have neard from many
of the older men in the departinent who will tell you that
they themselves do not have the time nor tne energy after
walking their beat.
One day I stepped in to a certain station and asked
the desk Sargeant if I could see the Captain. He rather
emphatically informed me that the captain was busy and
asked me to state my business. I told him who I was and
that I was trying to cet the men interested in atnletics,
gy.-i]nastics, etc. The gruff reply that "You might be more
successful if you were trying to promote a beer drinking
contest" did not discourage me from waiting to see the
Captain who very courteously listened to my plans and
became very entroisiastic over the possibilities of getting
something started that would improve the physical efficiency
of the men. This Captain and his staff are co-operating
now in as many ways as it is possible to put across a
- 27 -
Nevertheless, we can do notlriing to amount to much
unless we make the men see that their physical condition
is one of the primary situations demanding their attention.
5. Health Education.
(a) Understanding Essential to Co-operation,
"People must know why, and when once they understand
they can be depended upon to give full measure of earnest,
honest co-operation in the enforcement of health laws."
(b) Police Protection Acainst Disease.
After reading the above statement of Dr. Robertson,
and reminding ourselves of the fact that one of the chief
functions of the Police is to protect the life of the
public, we might ask ourselves whether our police are
sufficiently informed to carry out this function to the
extent of protecting the public life by protection against
disease. The more Health Education that can be given to
the police, the more capable will they be in co-operating
with the Department of Health. Besides having more legis-
lation for the preservation of health, it would be wise
ti give all police a thorough course in Health Education.
(c) Personal and Commiinity Hygiene.
Dr. Robertson divides Educational Health work into
two classes; "first, that which concerns itself with giving
information to the public along the lines of personal
1. John Dill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health and
Sanitation, pp. 13
- 28 -
hygiene and personal conduct of the individual: the second
class consists in efforts directed to arouse a com;nunity to
the need for special legislation and the securing of an
adequate budget to enforce such legislation."!
"It has been said, and well said, that when you can
get a community to understand the need for a certain law
and a "budcet to enforce the law, you have taken a great step
towards eliminating the evil toward which it was directed.
\7hen this is done, then comes the great campaign of educa-
tion by means of the law which has been created. This
requires a campaign of an entirely different type than that
required for the first kind of education. It requires an
executive who understands the law, knows his powers, and
who will energetically enforce the law without fear, with-
out political bias, alike against friend and foe." 2
It also requires a staff and force of police who
likewise understand the laws.
1. 2. John Dill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health
- 29 -
IV, POLICE FUNCTION.
1. Police Function Defined.
To the police are committed tiie enforcenent of law,
maintenance of order, and the preaenration of the public
peace. The protection of life and the security of prop-
erty larcely depend upon the zeal and fidelity with which
they discharge tiieir duties. It is esaential, therefore,
that they should possess discretion, integrity, activity,
sobriety, fearlessness and decision.
2. Ancient Police.
There are traces of police, or something analgous
to it, in Athens, Corinth and Ephesus. In Rome the duties
of the policeman seem to have been shared by several
classes of officials; the lie tor arrested criminals and
conducted them into court, and the inspectors, subprefccts
and other officers, either personally or by their subord-
inates, perfonned most of the civil duties now devolving
on the police.
3. Despotic Government,
In despotic governments, the police have exercised
important and often oppressive functions. Its beneficial
action in sanitary matters, in preventing and detecting
frauds, larcenies and petty crimes, and in reformation
of juvenile offenders is of recent date even in those
- 30 -
countries where the system has been longest and most
4. Relation of Police to Public.
In no two countries is the conception of the police
in its relation to the public exactly the sane. In Great
Britain, the police are the servants of tlie community.
They are the civil eiaployees whose primary duty is preser-
vation of public security. In execution of this duty tiiey
have no power not possessed by any otr.er citizen. In sharp
contrast with this is the Continental theory, which evolved
from the necessity of autocratic government makes the police
force the strong arm of the ruling class. The police poss-
ess powers greatly exceeding those of the citizens.
5. Function of Police in United States.
In the United States the legislative bodies
somewhat confused at times regarding the purpose and func-
tion of the police. In one community they limit police
activities to the protection of life and property and the
regulation of traffic, while in others every state and
municipal function is assigned to the police. "Our
duties have been drafted by lawmakers and theorists with-
out seeking aid from expert policemen primarily because
the policeman himself has never been altogether clear on
the subject. Therefore, the time is ripe for police
- 31 -
executiTes to discuBs this fundamental question and prepare
8 form which may be helpful to lecialators in the future." 1
6. First Modem Police Force.
The first modem police force of the world was es-
tablished in London, England, in 1821, by the passa^^e of the
celebrated Peel Act, which established a constabulary force
for the city under commissioners appointed by the Crown.
The act provided for a thoroughly organized and disciplined
corps of trained men, a regular day and night patrol, and
force of reserves to be stationed at the police headquarters.
7. Meaning of Term "Police".
"The term "Police" in the modem sense of the word is
defined as that part of the state administration which is
concerned primarily with the preservation of the peace and
the prevention and detection of crime in urban coimamities."
"Our word "Police" comes to us from the Latin word
"politia" and the Greek word "politeia" meaning government
and citizenship. In its broader significajice, the term
means the whole internal administration of a state less
the judicial power. In a more restricted sense, and yet
not as restricted as the term is used in the modern sense,
the term denotes that sphere of government activity which
has to do with the maintenance of the public peace, order,
and security, and the protection of the public health
- 32 -
and morale." 1
8. Real Opportunity for Public Service.
In a comparlBon of tiie definitions of the modem
police and the one just described above, we find that in
the latter sense the policeman is the protector of public
health and morale. To be sure, we have departments of
Health to look after the public health, and the Churcr.es
to keep up the morale of the community, BUT - tae policeman
patrolling his beat can do much for public health and morale
of the cominiinity which the Board of Health and the Church
cannot touch. That is, providing the policeman himself is
trained for such duties and had something done for him to
keep up his own morale, which would place him in the minds
of citizens as someone to be looked up to pJnysically,
mentally, morally and intellectually. This does not necess-
arily mean that we must have college graduates for the
police force, although this would do much to bring about a
higher standing, but it means that the policeman must not
be allowed to go to seed after he gets on the force. Dur-
ing the past six months, conversations with several hun-
dred policemen of Chicago on various matters pertaining to
their experiences show opportunities for doing good wasted
because of indifferonoe or ignorance on their part as to
the good of public health and morale. Therefore, one of
the first things that must be done to give us an efficient
1. New International Encyclopedia.
- 33 -
Police Department that will serve the coxmuunity in tirie
purpose for which it was originally intended, is to put
tiie policeman on a higher scale and educate and train him
and raise his own morale above or at least on tiie level with
that of the averace citizen.
- 34 -
V. PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE POLICKLiAN.
1. Specific Abilities; Cases Where Needed.
A study of the police work of Chicago rereals the
policeman in many situations tixat call for physical and
mental alertness, agility, strength of muscles, quick
judgment, good eye- sight and hearing, and resiliency. A
few incidents that will bear out this fact may be shovm
In the following news itons:
"Policeman Has Narrow Escape from Death. Patrolman
Floyd L. Arnold, who was target for hold-up men, and his
cap showing hole made by one of txicir bullets." (This
article appeared with the photograph of patrolman and cap
in the Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1923.)
On the same page appeared the photograph of Patrol-
man John T. McLaughlin who waa beaten up by five men.
About a week previous to the printing of the above
articles, the following account appeared in the same paper;
"Prisoner Strikes Down, Injures Police Sargeabt.
Sgt. John Kehoe of the \7abash Ave. Station sustained a
possible skull fracture yesterday as the result of an
attack upon him by John O'Donnell, 22 years old, 11 East
47th St., a prisoner whom he was questioning. Kehoe had
arrested O'Donnell as a suspect in a shooting affray. At
the station O'Donnell suddenly struck him to the floor."
In these three situations, we find tlxe policeman
- 35 -
with the odds against him in every case. In the first case
no details are furnished as to the manner of attack, but we
can use our imagination to some extent and see how the first
two policemen may hare been attack. The writer having had
the exi^erience of being "stuck up" or "held up" in Chicago
has some idea of what this first officer may have experienced.
This officer may iiave surprised the hold-up man at work and,
before he knew what he had run into, he had a bullet hole
in his hat. A hold-up man knows that an officer is armed
and tiiat unless he beats the officer on the draw he is going
to be taken dead or alive. Hold-up men will shoot; so will
a policeman. The writer was present several years ago at
the inquest of Leo V/ilde, a hold-up man, who tried to hold
up a policeman walking the street in his plain clothes. In
this case, the policeman beat Wilde on the draw and his aim
was true for Wilde died a few hours later. At the inquest
there were between five and eight persons who had been
victims of tiiis one man. One had been shot, and another
beaten over the head. One thing a policeman must know and
that is how to shoot and how to draw drickly. In this he
must have good sight, alertness and agility.
It would seem tliat a policeman attacked by five men
would not have much chance if he were taken unaware, which
must have been the case of Patrolman McLauchlin. But a
patrolman, armed and equipped as he is, could put up a hard
fight against five men. This, however, would require
- 36 -
courage to face oddsi muQcular strength, agility and en-
The case of Sot. Kehoe being struck down by a prisoner
while questioning him, demonstrates that an officer must be
mentally and physically alert euid ready to defend himself
and subside a prisoner.
Many other instances could be cited ti show that the
policeman must have the previously mentioned characteristics
The act of performing his duties may require a police-
man to use any or all of the following phases of physical
activities: Talking, Running, Jumping, Vaulting, Lifting,
Pushing, Pulling, Holding, Tussling, Striking, Dodging,
Throwing, Shooting and Swimming.
The difficult part of the profession is that a po-
liceman never knows when he is going to need any of these
abilities. He is like the soldier who must keep prepared
to meet emergencies. A soldier in time of peace must keep
up his training. Many of them train for years and neYer
have the opportunity of putting their skill into actual
practice of mortal combat. But during the soldier's
training, like situations to mortal combat are created in
the form of sham battles, etc., to keep up interest and to
place the men in positions where they will do the things
they would do in a real battle. One difference between
the soldier and the policeman is that the former usually
knows his enemy before he sees him, but the latter in
- 37 -
some cases never sees his enemy, and in many cases he le
at the disadvantage of not knowing his enemy until he has
shown some sign of a fight.
2. Influence smd Effect of these Activities.
In analyzing the activities in which a policeman
participates while performing his duties we begin to get
down to the fundamental abilities which he should possess.
This is the most common foim of activity in which
the patrolman participates.
'.Talking is defined as* "to proceed (at a slower or
faster rate) without running or lifting one foot entirely
before the other is set down". The patrolman in policing
his beat does not walk at a very brisk gait as a rule, but
dust saunters along keeping his eyes open. It would be
impossible for him to walk vigorously all the time that he
is on duty, nevertheless there is a great opportunity for
wholesome, pleasant and beneficial exercise open to tiie
policeman if he will only partake of it. One authority
on walking states that there are few exercises for the
general run of men any better Uian walking, - "walking
across country, at a natural cait, head up, chest out,
toes turned out and arms swinging easily at the sides.
Such walking is natural and healthful**. The muscles that
require the greatest development for walking are the
- 38 -
abdominal and the forethigh muscles.
Atliletic or Heel-and-Toe Walking: Competitive
walking is not as popular aa in former years. One author
states that this is probably due to the necessity for ex^-
agcerated stride, heel pounding, toeing in, etc. that goes
with this type of walking. "It is not harmful, of course,
because it is exercise, and all noruial exercise ie bene-
Rules for fair "Heel-and-Toe walk:
1. Hip motion; just enough twist or curve given to
bring the feet alternately in one straigl-'t line.
2» Leg action; below the waist shoot the leg out in
a straight, clean drive to its full, natural
limit: hip locked, knee locked, and free play
given the foot.
3* Foot action; the heel of the foot strikes the
ground first. As the left leg is swung in front
of the right, the foot of the right comes down
flat, then, as it is raised to toe position, the
heel of the left strikes the ground and in turn
takes the weight of the body.
4. Carriage of the body; to be perfectly upright,
with the center of gravity on the heels, the
head all the time traveling in a straight line.
5. Knee action; knee to be straight at first and
- 39 -
"Observe the vigorous man as iae walks: tue stride
is long and free; trie feet come surely and firmly to the
ground, vrithout twist or jar, toes pointed straight ahead:
the pelvis swaying easily, carries an erect body; the arms
awing in alternate rhythm with the legs; tne head is borne
free over all; breathing is deep and long; the blood courses
strongly. Every member siiares in the activity."
In running the whole muscular system, especially the
thighs smd calves are the chief regions of the body used.
The demand upon the nervous system for control is extreme
in the 100 asid 200 yard dashes, but becomes less with an
increase in the distance of the race. On the other hand,
the influence on pulse, blood pressure and respiration are
extreme in the long runs and less for tiie short dashes.
Speed, alertness, and endurance are the physical char-xcter-
istics needed in running. The best age for the practice of
running is from 19 to 30. Running 100 to 200 yards is a
typical exercise of effort while longer distances are a
severe test on the heart and lungs.
The policeman is never called upon these days to nui
a long distajice but tiiere are many occasions when he is
called upon to sprint a short distance and the faster he
can do it, the better it is for the public and for him.
ItcKenzie says that the best time to practice ninning is
between tlie ages of 19 and 30, but he does not say that a
,ji«*:im > ^.,,; nx .iij
, ,.tv..i:.,;: [..)
Uv -'■>■ <■•■ J.
; ..,. , -i^;' ;.: ... ,i:
i- !. - J ;;.,;!.. :l.:.ij..
- 40 -
man over 30 should not rion. Running should be a part of
every policeman's exercise, whether it be 50 yards or more,
the distance to depend upon the man's ae;e. However, the
fact reniains tiiat an elderly policeman may have just as
much need for running in an emergency as a younger one,
and that the laws of nature csmnot be neglected. Unless a
middle-aged policeman has been practicing some form of
exercise that will keep his heart, lungs and muscles prop-
erly toned to meet the emergency when it comes, he is liable
to meet with trouble when he tries to do some violent exer-
cise. UcKenzie says, "It is in those unprepared for violent
exercise, smd especially when approaching middle life, that
dsinger of heart strain is most imminent." "A heart in a
state of physiolic hypertrophy (due to athletics) contains
a reserve power wnich, while not needed under ordinary
conditions, becomes of the greatest importance at times of
prolonged severe muscular exertion. Athletic training thus
becomes a process of building the heart up in size, capacity
and efficiency for the special purpose in view." ^
At present there is no training given to the police
to help keep them or to encourage them in keeping the vital
organs in shape to meet the emergency. However, the Police
Field Day held last September in Chicago is a step in the
right direction but is only a short step and will avail
nothing unless more steps are taken in the same direction.
- 41 -
Distance and time of running various races:
Distance Pair Time Good Time Record Time Chicago Police ^c
100 yds. 12 8 10.4
220 " 26 24
440 " 60 54
880 " 2.15 2.5
Mile 14. 10.30
X - Time of races - Police Field Day, 1922.
In Jumping, the thighs, calves, back and shoulders
are the chief regions of the body involved. The higia jump
demands more nerve control than does tlie broad jump. The
influence on pulse, blood pressure and respiration is slight
in both types of jumps, and speed and a^^ility tiie physical
characteristics needed when the jump is taken witli a run.
Without the run only agility is needed. These events are
best for practice between the ages of 14 and 25 years.
The high jump is one of the tests which a man must
pass before he can become a policeman. The occasions when
a policeman is called upon to jump either high or broad do
not come very often, but the ability may be used to great
advantage when pursuing criminals who usually put as many
obstacles between the officers and. themselves as possible.
In the loinning broad jump, 18 ft. is a fair jump,
20 ft. good, and 24 ft. 11-5/8 inches the record.
In the nmning high jump, 5 ft. is fair, 5 ft. 6
- 42 -
inches good, and the record 6 ft. 7 inches.
According to the records for tne Police Field Day,
the beat broad jump waa 20 ft, 2 inches, and the best high
jump 5 feet.
There are various types of vaulting, and among them
pole vaulting and fence vaulting. In either case, the body
is raised by the arms and lifted over the bar. The fence
vault is the type of vault that a policeman is apt to be
called upon to use in pursuit. It is very comiaon to near
of a policeman jumping fences in aui effort to catch a
The forearm, arms, shoulders, abdomen, thighs and
legs are the chief parts of the body ussd in vaulting. In
pole vaulting, the demand upon the nerve control is extreme,
while in fence vaulting it is considerably less. The in-
fluence of either vault on the pulse, blood pressure and
respiration is slight. The physical characteristics needed
for the practicing of this event are agility and strength.
In lifting, the muscles of the back, shoulders, arms
and thighs are used. The demand upon the nerve control
and the influence on the pulse, blood pressizre and respira-
tion is slight. The practice of lifting develops strength.
The policeman may be called upon to lift persons
from the ground, for example, lifting a heavy person on a
stretcher into an ambulance or patrol. In cases of acci-
- 43 -
dents, he often has the occasion of lifting heavy objecto
when someone is pinned underneath. Vhlle such cases aee
rare, yet a policeman who is able to do these things In an
emergency is doubly valuable.
Pushing involves the muscles of the extensors of the
arms, chest, back, abdomen and thighs. The nerve control
required is slight, and the degree to which the pulse,
blood pressure and respiration are effected depends upon
the nature of the pushing. It is used by policemen in
keeping back crowds, pusliing open doors in raids, auid some-
times pushing unwilling captives into patrol or cells.
Pulling chiefly involves the flexors of tne anas,
shoulders, beck and thighs. The nerve control required is
slight, and the effect upon pulse, blood pressure and
respiration is extreme when the pulling is hard and steady.
Rowing a boat Is a form of pulling, and policemen ought to
know how to row, particularly if they ape working near a
body of water. There are times when a policeman must pull
his prisoner to the box to send in a call, or pull a
dangerous weapon from a person, either sane or insane.
Another word which might be used here is wrestling.
Sometimes a tussle may be as strenuous as a Trrestling match.
Therefore, they will be spoken of as one suid the same.
. 44 .
The whole muscular system, especially the neck» back, armsi
shoulders and abdomen are tlie chief regions of the body
involved. The nerve control required is extreme and the
effect on pulse, blood pressure and respiration is i^reat.
Strength, endurance, agility, speed and courage are the
physical characteristics needed.
(i) Striking and Dodging,
These are two movements which constitute the chief
part of boxing. There are times when an officer cannot use
his side-arms and must rely upon his hands to subdue the
law breaker. In a case like this, striking and dodging,
or boxing, of a serious nature is what actually takes
place. In doing this, the chief parts of the body used are
the forearms, arms, shoulders and back. The demand upon
nerve control is extreme and the effect upon the pulse,
blood pressure and respiration is great. The physical
characteristics needed are alertness, agility, strength
Throwing the club is sometimes necessary. Among
the early police, this was considered quite an art and lots
of time was devoted to this practice. However, to-day it
is not as popular. It is a means of stopping the culprit
without seriously injuring him. Anoth-r activity that
involves throwing is that of giving aid to a drowning
person by means of throwing out a life bupy. The Park
- 45 -
police especially should be able to do this. There axe
here two kinds of tlirows; the first overhand, and the latter
underhand. In throwing the club, the chief parts used are
the forearm, arm and shoulder. In throwing the life buoy
the arms, should and back are used. The nerve control is
great and the effect of t.jowing on the pulse, blood pressure
and respiration is moderate. The physical characteristics
needed are accuracy and speed.
Shooting is needed almost every day by some police-
mfiin in Chicaigo. "^n^en shooting is taken as an activity by
itself, such as target shooting, the whole muscular system
is involved moderately, while the arms, flexors and all
forearm are chiefly involved. The nervous control required
is extreme and the effect on pjilse, blood pressure and
respiration is slight. Accuracy is needed most. However,
when the drawing of tlie revolver is taken into account the
speed with which it is drawn may determine whether the
policeman is to shoot or to be shot.
VI. SELECTING THE PATROUllAN.
The selection of Patrolman is very similar tinrough-
out the United States. A oompariaon of the Cnica^o and
New Yotk exarainations show xoarked similarity. It is,
therexore, that in dealing witli the subject in this thesis
no great distinction will be made as to v/here the method
treated is used. Greatest emphasis will be laid upon the
Medical and Physical examinations.
In making application, the applicant states his
personal and family history, cause ^f fatner's or mother's
death, hereditary disease, any serious injury such as
broken limbs, etc., or any surgical operation, and his
occupation. This is the first inquiry into the applicant's
2, Basic Requirements,
Owing to the fact that the ideal policeman must be
a healthy young man who has arrived at the age of discre-
tion and the further fact that policemen are quite generally
pensioned when tiiey reach a certain a^e, or become physi-
cally unable to perform the duties of an officer, candidates
are not accepted unless they are more than 21 (ii New York) ,
24 (in Chicago) and less than 30 (New York), 34 (Chicago).
(b) Heieht, v.'eieht and Chest Expansion.
Applicants at the time of examination must be not
less than five feet eicht inches in hoicht. (Keu York -
five feet, seven and one-half inches).
Weight must not be less tlian one hundred, forty
five pounds, nor greater than tv7p hundred, thirty-five
pounds. Over or underweight is cause for rejection.
(Nev; York - minimum one hundred, forty pounds.)
The candidates must be of a v/eight falling within
the limits of weights prescribed in the following table,
according to his height. Applicants must have a chest
expansion of not less than three inches. The circumference
of chest that applicant must have corresponds to his height
ao iz^Ten in the table.
"Civil Service Text Book - City of Chicago:
The physical schedule for tiie police department.
32 Height Mln. Teight Uax. height Uin. Circum. of Chest
. 35 inches
- 48 -
Thus far, the cauididate uust stand upon anthropo-
metrical measurements, his ajje and history. If he does not
measure up to the requirements he is not permitted to go
any further with the examination.
3« Medical Examination.
The following is the description of the medical
examination of the New York Patrolman, as described by
L. F. Fuld:
A. By Inspection.
"The candidate enters the xaedical exa-ainers' room
in a nude condition. He is asked if he has been examined
before. Then he takes oath that he v/ill answer all ques-
Tliis is follov/ed by an inspection by the chief
medical examiner for defective legs, varicose veins, vari-
cosele, hydracele, enlargement of testicles, strictures or
uncontinence of urine. Any acute disease of the genito,
urinary organs or any syjiptoms of venereal disease will
cause the preemptory rejection of the candidate. The
abdomen is examined for rupture or for evidence of an in-
comi^letely healed laporotomy.
B. Sars, Hose, Tiiroat.
Next his ears, nose and triroat are exazJined. Ob-
struction to free breathing, cioronic catarrh, or very
offensive breath may cause the rejection of the candidate.
The teeth must be in good condition. There must be at
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least two molar teeth to eacii Jaw on each side and tixese
in good condition for proper mastication. At least twenty
natural teeth nust be present.
0. Rectum, Anus.
Next the subject's rectum and anus are inspected for
the presence of fissures and fistulas or external or in-
ternal piles, which are cause for rejection.
Feet are examined now. Any affections of tiie joints,
sprains, or stiffness of the arms or legs, hands or feet
will cause the rejection of tiie candidates, and in trie case
of tiie feet - flat feet, ingrowing nails, or iiammer toes
are especially looked for because tney would prevent the
candidate, if appointed, from performing his duties properly
Finally the physician inspects the general appearance
of the candidate once more to u^ke sure tiiat he is free from
any marked deformity, free from all parasitic or syotexuic
skin diseases and from evidence of intemperance in the use
of stimulants or drugs. The body must be well proportioned
and show careful attention to personal cleanliness.
E. Important organs and Senses Tested.
Important orgsuis and senses are tested. The Ci^icago
Uedical examination makes the following rules regarding the
conditions that these organs must be in at the time the
candidate is exaniined:
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Glasses not permitted. Applicants must be able to
read 20:30 with each eye and 22:iiO combined.
(Sneller's Teat) Must pass a satisfactory color
test with yams.
(b) Heart and Lungs:
Heart must be nonaal. Any indication of diseaoe of
this organ or of the blood vessels snail be cause
for rejection. Lungs and all organs of respiration
must be normal.
Must be nor::jal.
(d) Brain and Nervous System:
Must be normal, beyond question. Evidence of disease
of the brain or of spinal cord shall be sufficient
at least to hold the case under advisement.
(e) Serious Injury or Illness:
Complete recovery must be shown, and vrithout apprec-
iable effect on physical capacity or function.
P. Physical Defects.
(a) Legs, Arms, Hands, Feet:
Use of legs, arms, hands and feet must be complete,
excepting that one joint missing from left hand shall
not be cause for rejection, nor sriall left ankylosis,
tliat affects not more than one finger or thumb joint
be cause. Any physical characteristics tiiat migiit
- 51 -
interfere with good service or effect •appearance* ,
hammer toe and one flat foot s^iall be oauee for
(b) Skin, Scalp:
Any infections or contagious disease or pronounced
evidence on any part of the body, of any disease
shall be cause for rejection.
Bvidence must be shown of recent successful vaccination.
There must be a proper number of natural teeth in good
condition and repair, and these teeth must be in good
opposition for bridge or crown worJc.
First presence of suc;ar or repeated presence of al-
bumen or casts shall be cause for rejection.
Evidence of having or having had syphillis, or of
the presence of any other venereal disease, shall be cause
I. Hernia, Piles and Goitre.
Hernia, Piles and Gpitre are also causes for rejection.
4. Summary of Causes for Rejection.
In general, then it miight be stated that these axe
the causes for rejection:
1. Lack of HeiGJat.
2. Lack of Teight or OverwelfiJit.
3. Hereditary Disease.
4. Lack of C^est Expansion.
5. Lack of Girth of Chest.
6. Defective Lees.
7. Varicose Veins.
10. Enlargement of Testicles.
11. Strictiires or Uncontinence of Urine.
12. Disease of Genito-urinary Orcana.
13. Symptoms of Venereal Disease.
14. Piles, Fissures and Fistulas of Rectum and Anus.
15. Flat feet, Inerowing Nails, Hammer Toes.
16. Impaired Vision.
17. Heart Disease.
18. Lung Disease.
19. Infections or Contagious Disease.
20. Repeated Presence of Albumen or Casts in Urine.
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The following statistics shows the number of individ-
who V7ere rejected for the various defects brought to lisht
by the medical examinations of candidates for the Police
Department of Chicago:
"Civil Service Commission of Chicago - Annual Report"
Cauoe of Rejection
Flat Feet or Deformity
Ht. Tgt. Chest
Prom these statistics it can be seen tiiat the night,
weight and ciiest measurements cause more rejections than
any three other causes. ISTe are discovering more and more
tlirough anthropometrical measure.'nents and physical efficiency
tests that height and weight in themselves are not reliable
for determining physical efficiency.
Dr. Sargent states, "those of us who are engaged in
making physical measurements of men by the thousands soon
loam the limitations of the information which comes to us
from anthropometrical measurements*. ^
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Measurements alone do not tell uo anything of the
texture and quality of the parts covured, how much is fat or
bone, and how much is muscle.
There is a lar^e field open for studying the different
types of men in relation to physical fitness. The tests made
by the writer and recorded in a later section under the topio
of "Sargent Tests* will show some indications that we cannot
say a man is physically inefficient just because he is heavy
or lii^ht in weight, but that certain combinations maJce differ-
ent types of men and tliat these men have certain physical
handicaps which might be counterbalanced by soi^.e otxier factor.
The Height, Weight and Chest Chart is an attempt to classify
the :nen with regard to tneir relative height, weight and
chest measurements. Should another factor, such as the
Sargent test be introduced into this combination to test
whether the individual might have some valuable characteris-
tics which would at least compensate or more than compensate
for the minor deficiency that would otherwise throw him out.
Take the case of A. J. , a recruit for the South Parks
Police Department, who was about six pounds under.veight
according to the standards as set. He was a very capable
man physically as shown by his index in the Sargent's test and
by the fact that he stuffed himself with food and water to
the extent of making up tlie lack of weight he passed the
physical tests. This is very common in these exar^inations
and the officials do not object to them doing it when they
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think the man looks like he posBeaeea the desirable quali-
ties. Why not eliminate such folly and put in a recompen-
sating factor in the height, weight and chest measurement
5. Phyoical Tests.
Space will not be taken up to go into detail regard-
ing the physical tests which are familiar to many. If any
one should desire a f..ller description of these tests he
can find this in the "American Physical Education Review",
Volume 14, by L. P. Puld, (pp. 168).
The following chart gives the name of tlie test, tlie
standard for 100;» for each test and the weight of each test
in the whole of the physical tests:
"Civil Service Text Book - City of Chicago. Police.
Physical Standard No. 2;
Positions: Patrolman and Guard, House of Correction,
T)t. 35. Test
Capacity of Lungs
Strength of Back
Strength of Legs
Strength of Upper
Strength of Forearm
Dumbbell (75 pounc
- 56 -
Physical Standard No. 2: (Continued)
Abdominal Muscles 50 Pounds
Abductors 130 Pounds
Agility (Max. 4 ft. junp) 4 Feet
While the above are the physical tests for Patrolaian
for the City of Chicago, the ensuing method of (jrading is
that of Hew York City. The method of the two cities is
about the same except that Chicago gives the physical ex2Lm-
ination a total weight of 50 while New York gives only a
total weight of 30.
The following is L. F. Fuld's description of the
measurements and method of grading for tne Kew York Police,
in American Physical Education Review, Volunie 14, pp. 170:
"Police Exa;nination (Physical) :
All the tests in the Physical Kxaiaination are given
a combined weight of tixirty, and the sum of the products
obtained by multiplying the percentage received by the candi-
date on each test by the relative weigiit attached to the
test is divided by thirty. Furthermore, since the strength
of the candidate as determined by the marks received by him
in the pliysical tests is given a weight of two in the exam-
ation for the position of Patrolman, the quotient obtained
by dividing by thirty is multiplied by two to secure the
candidate's standing in the strength tests."
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"At the conclusion of the strength teste, the candi-
date is again required to strip for the takine of neaoure-
ments. These measurements are:
Weight 1. 1. Girth of chest - after noruial expiration.
Girth of chest - after forced inspiration,
Weight 5. 2. Girth of waist at narrowest part.
Weight 2. 3. Girth of thigh at widest point.
Weight 2. 4. Girth of calf; upper arm; foreaim.
Weight 1. 5, Depth of chest; abdomen.
Physical Examination. Grading. (pp. 171)
In the case of each of these measurements all of
which are recorded in centimeters i a certain measurement is
given a weight of 100, the perfect measurement varying with
the size and weight of the subject, and sxnaller measurements
are given lower percentages. The percentage given to each
measurement is multiplied by the weight attached to tiiat
particular measurement in the exa:nination, and all of tiiese
products are added. The sum of these products is added to
the percentage which is given to the subject on general
muscular condition, to v/hich is given a weight of nine in
the exai-ination . This percentage for muscular condition is
deter;nined by a careful inspection of the candidate and by
an examination of his performances in the physical strength
tests. All of these products are added and the sum divided
by thirty, the resulting percentage being the percentage
of the candidate in the measurements.
"The percentage receiyed in the strength teste
multiplied by two is added to the percentage received in
the measurements, and after the sum has been divided by
three the quotient is the percentage which the candidate
receives in his physical examination."
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VII. PHYSICAL BPPICIENCY.
1. Man Vs. Machine.
■In the modem factory the science of machinery it
developed to its highest point. In the selection , con-
struction and use of the machine nothing is left to chance.
Its type is selected in accordance with its exact fitness
for the work deiaanded of it. It is constructed of appro-
priate materials and is so designed as to avoid lost motion
and the waste of energy involved and to allow the h-ghest
possible proportion of the total energy that is transformed
to perform the work required. It is kept clean, unnecessary
friction is avoided, and every care is taken that its bear-
ings shall not become corroded, rusted or worn beyond
repair. When in action it is run at a speed for which it
is planned, it is not overloaded, and not overheated; the
condition under which it can work with the greatest effic-
iency has been carefully studied; and every effort is made
to maintain these conditions and secure the largest possible
output without injury or unnecessary deterioration of the
machine itself." ^
2. The Human Machine.
Ho other factory mechanism approaches the hu man
machine in its intricacy, the perfection of the correlation
of its working parts, its combination of delicacy and
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otrentjth, and its adaptability to the work required of it.
In the factory Byetem the efficiency of Uiis human machine
is based upon the amount of energy needed to produce the
greatest amount of work. This method cannot be used to
measure the efficiency of the policeman. Of course, we
could tell you hos much more work a heavy built policeman has
to do to cover the same amount of ground than aoes a lighter
policeman. But that would not tell us an^thin^; as to the
efficiency of their work. The stout policenan may be just
as efficient in patrolling that beat as is the lighter man
as he has a body that is able to furnish more energy. How-
ever, it is not the matter of wd. king the beat that deter-
mines which is capable od doing the best police duty. But
if two policemen, one stout and the other lighter, were
walking down the street together and a pickpocket snatched
a ladies pocketbook tvfenty-five yards ahead cf them - who
would be the more apt to catch the tneif? Or, supposing
one of these two policemen were called upon to subdue some
insane person who was running wild and threatening to injure
some helpless persons? In either case, the one that is
most likely to capture and hold the offender is the one wh^
is better able to handle his body 7/ith the greatest amount of
speed, least amount oi overhead, leaet amount of overheating
and whose body furnished the best conditions for the working
together of the different parts.
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3, Basis of Idilitary Efficiency.
Col. H. J. Koehler in his "V/Gst Point Manual of
Diaciplinary Physical Training* states, "that the efficiency
of military establishment is in direct ratio to the pliysical
fitness and aptitude of its indiviuual units has never been
better demonstrated as conclusively as it has duiin£; tiiC
This same statement might be made concernin(^ the
physical efficiency of the police department.
4. Policeman and Soldier Alike.
In the preceding chapter we have seen with viAt
great care tiie policeman is selected. After passing the
exai:iination the individual ougi.t to be physically fit for
the duties he is to perform in tiie capacity of a policeman.
Ray croft, in "Mass Physical Training*' says, "the
fact that a man passes the physical examination for ad-
mission to the army indicates simply tliat he is good human
material and suffers no obvious physical handicap." Like-
wise, a man passing the physical exai^ination for admisaion
for the police force only inaicates that he suffers; no
physical handicap at the time examined.
The duties of the policeman are aiiailar to ihose of
a soldier in many respects. TThen needed for action he must
be able to respond quickly and precisely. However, the times
of real action comes at rare intervals, ajid unless tnere is
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some form of physical training for hin uurin^ tne times of
peace there is creat danger of physical deterioration.
5. Civil Service Pnysical Stcjideird for Police.
"In the oriijinal entrance exaoiinations for Toatrolaien
in the Police Departiiicnt , a.^xjlicanto, in a >aition to the
requirements of Rule II, at the tiiae of exa^.ination ;uust be
betvyeen the aj^es of 21 and 30 years, not less than 5 feet,
7 incxies in i.eigiit (in bare feet), posse;;s weijat and
m^asureuients in accordance with the tables given below, and
must be piiysically qualified to tiustain ti^e labors and ex-
posures of the police as d^jteririined by the ii^edical and
physical exa-iners appointed by ti^e Commission;" 1
It can be seen that the medical and pxv'sical examin-
ations are intended to be a standard by which a man is
measured as to his capacity to perform his duties and abil-
ity to sustain exposure.
Since the standards as set by the medical and physi-
cal exaiiiinations so far exceeds tiie standards required of
men in the ordinary walk of life, tt is assumed that the
duties of the policeman with respect to severeness, variety
and general intensiveness de.^nde tnat tne policuiaan poseeas
more t--an the average amount of organic vigor, Jiuscular
and nervous streni^th and endurance. Aside from these it
is also nececsajry that the : ower of resistance to disease,
1. "Civil Sorvice Laws and Rules for City of Cxiicago* .
in effect June 1, 1920.
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soiaatic rigor inherent in every individual, in a greater
or leaser decree, be fully developed in order triat he may
successfully withstand the hardships of the service.
In other words, to measure his physical efficiency,
the question as to whether a laan once physically efficient
is always physically efficient must be considered. Along
with this we must take up the further question of whether
it is just as important for a middle-aged man to be able
to sustain exposure and perform duties as it is for the
younger man who has just been accepted on the strength of
his ability to furnish evidence of being capable of sus-
taining exposure and performing the duties of a policei:ian.
If all we had to do was to repeat the famous motto
"Every day in every way I'm getting better and better", we
certainly would always be physically efficient or fit. But
metabolism and katabolism do not seem to be assisted very
much in this way, at least not enough to talk about nere.
The question as to what should be the standard of
physical efficiency of a "middle-aged" police^aan ought to
be of greatest concern a;aong the xieads of police departments
and leading physical educators.
The policeman of C/iicago have the advantage of having
a body that at one time at least was passed upon by the board
of examiners as being capable of aieeting the requirements
necessary for the performance of duties. If the physical
and medical exaniinations are to be taken as standards of
physical efficiency, why should not more effort be placed
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upon keeping the men of the police departments physically
6. Civil Service Efficiency.
The Police Department of Chicago is under Vlvil
Service. Reculation XII in Civil Service is headed,
"Individual Efficiency Records". The followinfj; comes
under this heading: "Sheets for monthly efficiency mark-
ings shall be furnished by the Civil Service Commission to
departments. They must be made out in ink or on the type-
vrriter. The monthly efficiency markings of all appointees
in the classified service shall be derived froiii the daily
time reports and rei.orts of work of employes in the depart-
ment, bureau, division or section concerned."
Right here there is something missing in the regulau-
tions which ought to be there. Here should be inserted,
"Physical efficiency markings shall be derived from periodic
tests which test the individuals capacity for performing
the duties for which he had been examined previous to being
appointed to tne position." The test must take into con-
sideration physiologic changes that come with middle age
and a system of training should be adopted and enforced to
make it possible for the inen to keep up to standard, and
if, they don't it is no fault of the department and the man
deserves a low efficiency mark.
Another thing that should be put In is, "Medical
- 65 .
examinations must be made annually of all men of the de-
partment. Men are to be graded aund clasaified according to
their age and physical condition as determined by an exam^
ining board of medical men. Corrective treatment, as well
as preventive treatment, shall be prescribed by an efficient
physical director for each classification and ample time
shall be given each day for such treatment, *
Reading further into Regulation XII, v;c find that tlae
abilities and activities that are listed here cannot be
recorded unless some means similar to the above suggestions
are afforded for making the tests of these abilities and
activities. The rei:uiation rc^^ds as follows:
"Sub factors ana specific weights shall be used in
the efficiency standards for • (Quality of Vork* wherever
practicable. The definitions and wei(:;hts of the sub- factors
which sriall be applied in marking the "quality of work* of
different employes are, as follows:
A. ABILITY: Ability to perform the specific duties
of the position, physical ability, general health, endur-
ance, technical ability, special knowledge, mechanical
skill, neatness of work, originality, resourcefulness,
initiative, ability to direct work and to uiana^^e men, exec-
utive ability, sense of order, system, judgment, discretion,
C/ ACTIVITY: Alertness, promptness, speed, industry,
perseverance, energy, diligence i willingness to work.
R. RELIABILITY: Certainty of action, sobriety,
health, accuracy, exactness, freedom from error, truthful-
ness, attention to duty, faithfulness."
7. Physical Efficiency Tests.
"The demands made by modem warfare for body control,
agility, physical strength emd endurance are extremely
severe. Every means should be employed to stimulate men to
strive for a high standard of physical efficiency, and to
maintain this high standard after it has been secured.
Physical efficiency tests enable the Comuanding
Officer to secure information about the physical condition
and ability of the individual recruit and of his rate of
progress during training. They enable him also to check
up on the condition of the trained soldier by periodical
tests, and to crade platoons and companies by t^-e use of
charts showing the percentage of the membership of each
outfit that has attained the various grades of physical
efficiency. Such charts and contests encourage the spirit
of competition among the units in the matter of physical
efficiency smd aid in the development of a healthy esprit
"The standard test is composed of five ele;:.ents;
four simple events to test skill and ability in running,
jumping, climbing and throwing, smd a fifth event which
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is a combination of the foregoing." 1
While the writer has not been able to lay his fingers
upon any definite test used in the Navy, he feels certain
that the value of such tests is being recognized. In an
article "Athletics in the Navy" by B. C. R. Captain, U.S.M..
we find such recognition of participation in activities
which develop the parts and really test the parts essential
to vitality and to the work in gunnery, engineering and
(o) Fire Departxaent of Chicago.
The Fire Department of Chicago has come to realize
the importance of keeping the men in physical fitness.
Hand ball courts are connected with most fire department
buildings, and in some there are partly equipped gymnasiums.
In the Summer time, base ball is promoted in the department.
But the most interesting development is that of the intro-
duction of periodical physical tests. These tests are along
the line of the duties which must be performed in case of
fires, etc. They are in their embryonic stage and tlie
development and extension to other branches of Civil Service
1. Raycroft - "Mass Physical Training"
2. "Mind and Body" - Vol. 29, pp. 395.
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VIII. SARGENT'S TEST.
1. Police Department of Chicago.
Before discuoaing the form in which this efficiency
test Tiill come to the Police Department, it would "oe well
to iaake a brief review of all that could in any way be
considered as being an attempt on tne part of the Police
Department to maintain a higher rate of physical efficiency.
At the present time tnere is no way in which the
physical efficiency of a policeman is measured and rc;corded
by the Department. And there is likewise no regular phys-
ical training given after the probation period of the
recruit, other than two hours a week for six weeks during
the Spring of the year. For forty- six weeks then, there is
no training whatever. The drill during the six weeks in
Spring consists of foot drilling under the direction of the
Drill Master. Each man on the force is required to attend
the drilling school one day per week for a two-hour period.
The Armories are used for the drilling.
It is not very difficult to estliiate the value of
this drilling, nor of the probability of discovering the
physical efficiency of the men during the drill.
About the middle of the Suminer of 1922, Chief
Pitzmorris of the Chicago Police Department announced that
on September 16th and 17th there would be held a Police
Field Day. The events were decided upon as follows:
50 Yard Dash, 100 Yard Dash, 220 Yard Dash, 440 Yard Run,
880 Yard Run, Mile Run, Running Broad Jump, Running High
Jump, Hop, Step ajid Jump, 16-lb. Shot Put, 56-lb. Weight
for distance, 440 Yard Relay, 880 Yard Relay, One Mile
Relay. Feature events - Shuttle Relay (20 men ^n a team,
on foot), Chariot Relay (51 men on a team, foot), ajid
Tug of War, foot (20 men on a team). Special events -
50 Yard Dash, for men in the service over 20 years; 75
Yard Dash, for men in the service over 10 years and under
20 years; Medlay Relay - \Valk 440 yards - run 440 yards -
ride a horse 880 yards - ride a motorcycle one i:iile;
Fat Man's Race - 50 yards (a minimum weight of 200 lbs.)
Mounted Events - Push Ball, mounted (11 horses and riders);
Tug of War, mounted (4 horses and riders per team); Water-
melon Race, on horseback (individual); Cockade Tilting, on
horseback (6 men). Motorcycle events - Polo game (5 men on
a team); Barrel Race (Individual); Ring Race; Stake Race;
The main object of the Field Day v/as to raise funds
for the Policemen's Benevolent Association, and incidently
it was recognized as a means of improving the physical
efficiency of the Department.
A temporary stadium of enormous size was erected in
Grant Park to stai:;e the events, and on botn days it was
- 70 -
filled and overflowing. Thousands of people were turned
away on Sunday, the final day.
To encourage Uie men eind afford tiriem a chance to
train, the men were allowe^ about three hours a day (only
those who were entering the meet) . Public Parks and Play-
grounds became the center of training activities. Interest
grew from day to day. Former athletic stars hunted up their
spike shoes and track pants i which had been stored away for
years, and ambitious youths bought tennis shoes and a gym.
suit and applied themselves to tiie task of training. Others
who thought that they needed the exercise, and tiiat here was
a chance to get it on the City's time, came out in street
shoes and undershirts and had a good time at txAt.
The writer of this paper was at ti;iat particular time,
and now, playground Instructor at Ogden Park in Englewood,
Chicago. At the request of Captain Altman of the Englewood,
11th District Station, the Instructor assiuaed charj^e of tne
training of the men of tnis station for the Field Day.
Mr. Cottle, also an Instructor at Ogden Park, was in charge
of the training of tne police of the 10th District Station,
who on an avera^^e were in about tlie same shape as the men
of the 11th District.
Out of about 300 officers serring from the Englewood
Station, 50 men (or l/lOth) responded to the call for
athletes. These thirty men ranged in age from about 22
years to 49 years, and from 6 months to 16 years in the
serrice. Howerer, the record here giren is only of the
best ten men in oacii event:
August 14th - 50 Yard Dash. After about two weeks
preliminary training, the police 7/ere timed. Tne fastest
time was 6 sec. 2/5 sec. The averatie for the beat ten men
was 6 and 9/10 seconds. The poorest record was 7.2 seconds
with plenty of company.
August 22nd - 100 Yard Dash. The average of the
best ten men for the 100 Yard Dash was 13 and 1/5 seconds;
the best time was 11 and 3/10 seconds, and ^ne poorest tiine
August 15th - Running High Jump. Ten out of 30
men jumped four feet or better in the high jump. The best
jump was 4 feet, 10 inches; and the average of tne best ten
men was 4 feet, 3-3/5 inches. Poorest Jump - 3 feet, 6 in.
August 15th - 16-lb. Shot Put. The best ten Oien
put the shot at an average of 21 feet, 8/10 foot per man.
The best put was 25 ft. 2 inches; tne poorest 18 feet.
August 15th - Running Broad Jump. The best ten men
jumped an average of 14 feet per man. Some men could not
coordinate to get a jump.
August 22nd - 220 Yard Dash. The avera^^e for tiie
best ten men in this event was 30.3 seconds, and the best
time was 28 seconds.
In the longer runs, not many of tlie men had enough
August 22nd - 440 Yard Dash. The best seven men
ran the 440 in slti average of 1.08 seconds per inasi,
AuGUst 22nd - Mile Run. TJiree men ran a mile in
6.30, 6.50 and 6.12 minutes.
A glance at these records may not meem a great deal.
It must be remembered that they are the beat and tiie aver-
ages of the best ten men are considerably higiier than the
general average of the department. It is impossible to
get the records of all the .lien and in tuis way wc inust draw
our conclusions from the fact that we are almost certain to
find the general average performance considerably below
that of the best ten men of this station.
According to McKenzie's standards of runrxing (see
pp. 41), 12 seconds is considered fair for tne 100 Yard
Dash. The average of the best ten men of EnglevTood Sta-
tion was 13 and l/o seconds, which accordingly we might
consider as being poor for an active person.
In the Broad Jump 18 feet is considered a fair
jump. The average of the best ten men of Englewood
was 14 feet which, likewise, is considered poor.
In the High Jump, 5 feet is considered a fair jiamp.
The average of the best ten men of Englewood was 4 and
3/10 feet which again is poor.
In the 440 Yard Dash, 60 seconds is considered fair.
The average of the best seven men ^f Englewood wac 1 minute,
8 seconds. This is also considered poor by McKenzie.
Tl^e same is true of longer runs and the shot put.
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In drawing concluaiona, '.ve oust take in the facts
of tirieae records and assume that tiie moot capable aien of
this station were in the tests. Then, with these facts
and that assumption, we would be safe in saying that the
physical efficiency of the Englcwood Police from the
standpoint of athletics is poor.
But the Engleirood Police took second place in the
Police Field Day, which puts them higner in athletics than
almost the entire Police Department. Now then, what is to
be said about the physical efficiency of the whole Depart-
ment, judging from an atiiletic point of riew?
3. Explanation of "Sargent Test".
The Sargent test is naiaed after its originator, Dr.
D. A. Sargent, former director of the Kemenway Gymnasium
of Harvard University. Dr. Sargent is well known in
Physical Education and the test used in these e?:pcriments
is the result of years of study and experimentation.
The individual to be tested stands under a cardboard,
or paper box cover, heavy and stiff enougr. to hold its form,
about 12 inches in diameter, held or suspended from ten to
twenty or more inches above his head. He is then requested
to bend forward, flexing the trunk, knees and ankles, and then
by a powerful Jump upward, straighten tne legs and spine to
- 74 -
try to touch the oardboord disk wlU^ the top of the head.
Cnlncliv:; the arias for.vard and upward ul ti^e oorjie tixae t^ie
legs* back and acok arc extended » vill be found to add to
the i^Gi^i^it of tiac juap, ^nen the disk has been place i at
the hi(;neat point above the head that can bo touo^^ed in
ti.e jumping, ti-.e Loitiht ia mcaaured. Tnc difforonce between
thie hei^lit and that of the total stature ie of courae the
actual heic^.t juinced. Thus, if the indiYidual tec ted
wcii^iied 150 pounds and Jumped LO inc:.eo aboTC his head and
was 70 inches tall, the formuia for hia efficiency index
would bo as follows:
i.e. , XpO X. 20
MACHINE FOR MAKING SARGENT TEST
scale in inches
e reeui here
1/2 inch equal I fact.
Removable base and horizontal arm
- 75 -
Regarding the teot, Dr. Sargent says, "llo one would
deny tliat the ability to project on's's body weight 20 or 30
inches into the air against the force of grarity requires
strength of the part of tne muacles engaged in the effort.
No one woikld deny that th'3 effort would hare to be aade
with a certain det^ree of Telocity or a^^eed in order to
create impetus enougn to carry tr.e body tvrenty incr-es abore
its own lerel in the standing position. Further, no one
would deny that back of the requisite Btrenp^th of muscle
fibers and rapidity with which they are made to contract
there must be energy , "pep", "Tim", vitality, or whatever
it .:iay be termed which drives our internal machinery.
Overlapping all, of course, is trie skill or d exterity with
which the jump is executed. Tx^erefore, the test as a whole
may be considered as a momentary tryout of one's strength,
speed , energy and dexterity combined, which in x^^ opinion,
furnishes a fair physical test of a man, and solves in a
simple way his unknown equation as determined potentially
by his weight and height.
It will be observed that ti.e parts tested, namely,
the muscles of the feet, calves, tnighs, buttoclis, back,
neck, anterior deltoid, chest and biceps are the muscles
moot used in all forms of athletics, sports, track and
field games, settinij;-up exercises, posture drills, etc.,
- 76 •
and are of funda!:aental lax.ortoncc in all aotlve industries*
For this roason, I tiiink it should preoode any otixer all-
jtound physical test in ba.oic value*
An earlier olxaptcr has discussed at length the
parts of the body used most by the i^olioecion in the per-
formanco of his duties, A close study of the functioninc
of these parts and p^rts tooted by the Sart;ent'a Teat -.Till
disclose the fact that tx^e Sargont's Toot comes about aa
close to testing the all-round riiyaical efficiency of a
policc::;an ao it is poaaiblo vtiUi a oingle teat*
The follovrinc experimental teata mode on variouo
croups ia an attonpt to discover the value of tirie Sargent's
teat ao a poaoible practical raoano of testing a polioeaan*s
physical efficiency and of dctorraining the comparative
physical efficiency betrycen the poliocraan and various other
groups of men.
(a) Explanation of Chart ?To. !• All Men Test.
1. The headings of tho columns fro.:, left to rijit
A. Number given Individual (Used in referring
D* height, at tino of taking test, vrith somA
aoijunt of clothes on aa Trhen teotod.
- 77 -
E. Height, in btockin(j, feet.
F. Distance Jumped.
G. Efficiency Index.
I. Degree of Activity.
(a) Involved in Occupation.
(b) Customary Recreation.
(c) Special Forms of Exercise, as attending
cyia, class, etc.
2. This cliart is an index of all tne men tested,
arranccd according to age.
In the cases of numbers 50, 8, 2, 37, 1, 56, 59, 55,
71, 58, 56, 67, 44, 68, 61, 63, and 62, the degree of
activity, as given on this chart, refers to a period pre-
ceding the time of the taking of the tests. See Wiart No.
2 for these men after the first test.
The degree of activity corresponds to U\e period of
at least three months prior to the time of the tests.
In the cases of the Business Men's group, some men chan(_,ed
from 'no physical recreation' or 'gym. inactivity' to
'active' in either one or both items with an increase in
(b) Chart No. 1:
Wk. Rec. EC.
— (V.orks too i
Hr.t. Jji. Incl.
68.9 18.1 41.5
71 20 47.3
^. Rec. Ex.
- nit;ht work)
Enamel er- Ford
Ciiart No. 1: (Concluded)
V.-k. Rec. Ex.
S. P. Police
Bd. of Sduc.
- 81 -
(c) Explanation of Chart lio, 2. (Sargent's Test
Applied to Group of riuainess lien).
The object of this experiment is to shovr the pnyai-
cal efficiency of the men at the beginning of tne gymnasium
season and the effect of regular exercise upon the physical
efficiency. Also to afford a coiiiparison between a group of
business men and the pollcexaan.
In the middle of December, 1922, 18 business men were
given the Sargent's Test. An accurate account was kept of
their attendance. The testa were all given preceding the
gymnasium period in the evening. The regular program was
followed each class session, consisting of five minutes of
marching and maze running; twenty- five minutes setting-up
exercises; thirty minutes Volley Ball.
On April 10th, four months after the first test,
another test was made.
Chart No. 2 shows the number of days which the
men attendea gym. during the four months, and the pnysical
efficiency index of first and second test.
In this experiment there can be seen a relation
between pi.ysical activity and physical efficiency. In
almost every case the men showed some improvement and in
many there is a luarked improvement. Men with lower marks
on the first test, and with a fairly regular atiendance
showed most improveaent.
. 62 -
- 83 -
(e) Explanation of Chart No. 3. (Sargent* s Test
applied to a group of men taking the Civil
Service Examination for South Park Police).
All of the men of this group had passed the Medical
and Physical Tilxaminations. The Sargent's Test was given to
the men at Puller Park immediately after they had taken the
Civil Service physical exaiiiination, wxiich consisted of nine
physical tests, dcscrioed ao follows:
1. Capacity of Lungs:
Max. 280 cu. in. 1/2 off for each inch 8
2. Strength of Back:
aax. 400 kilos. 1/2 pt. off for each kilo. 10
3. Strength of Legs:
Max. 500 kilos. 1/2 pt. off for oacr. kilo. 10
4. Strength of ITorearm:
Uax. 250 kilos, R. and L. plus.
i/2 pt, off for eacn kilo. 10
5. Strength of Biceps:
Uax. chin 8 times. 10 pts. for each pull 12
6. Strength of Triceps:
Uax. push-up 8 times. 20 pts. for each one. 15
7. Abdominal Muscles:
Uax, 25 flections. 4 pts. for each flection. 5
8. High Jump:
Max, 4 ft - 100,^. 3 pts. for each inch. 15
9. Pence Vault:
Max. 4 ft, 6 in. - 100,^. 8 pts. for each in. 15.
- 84 -
The results of the Sargent's Test and the Civil
Service Physical Tests are shown side by side on Ciiart
With the aid of Chart No. 1, a closer study may
be made of these men as to ti.eir physical efficiency.
(f) Chart No, 3!
Sargent's Test on Men ^o Have Taken
Civil Service Exoinination for South Park Police Dept.
Sargent Cf. Activity other
Jump Index Index than Occui-ation
Age . Wgt . Hgt
26 191 68.5 19.5 57.
24 170 69. 23. 56.6
24 175 68. 24
77.9 No Training
98.1 No Training
61.7 99.1 (Baaeoall-Football-
( Basket Ball.
24 162 69.2 23.8 55.7 98. No Training
26 165 69,
Stremplewski 27 155 68,
23. 55. 98, IIo Training
24. 54.7 94.1 Baseball - Basket Ball
Young 27 163 68.5 22.5 53.6 93,6 Little gym. work
Farrell 24 180 74. 22. 53.5 100. Baseball - Basket Ball
McFarland 25 165 70.5 21.5 53.1 81.5 No Training
Goughn 30 158 68. 23. 53.4 91.2 No Training
Uodini 28 174 70. 21. 52.2 98,3 No Training
Garabon 25 160 68.8 22.2 51.6 93.7 No Training
Young 27 160 69. 22, 51. 100. No Training
Corbott 24 157 69.5 22.5 50.8 30.9 (Baseball-Ba£:ket Ball -
Fitzgerald 29 150 68, 23, 50.7 ^6.1 No Training
Lenehan 29 154 68.5 22,5 50.5 93,8 No Training
Noe 28 155 68. 22, 50.1 96,5 (None for years
(Active until recent yrs
Cunningham 27 162 69.3 20.2 49.3 91,1 No Training
7ard 30 157 68,5 21,5 49,2 95,4 No Training
O'lleam 25 132 68. 22. 49.1 95.5 Baseball
':ianne 31 185 72. 19. 48.8 76.3 IIo Training
Gilles 29 163 70. 21. 48.8 99.5 No Training
- 86 -
Chart IIo. 3 (Concluded)
Sarcent C.C. Activity other
Nq ,« Name Ar,e V/r.t « Hp;t . Jump Index Index than Occupation
39. Brennan 28 155 68.5 21.5 48.6 100. Gym. occasionally
52. Berndt 30 172 69. 19. 47.3 94.6 No Training
27. Delohcry 26 168 71. 20. 47.3 96.5 No Training
41. Ryan 28 175 71. 17. 41.8 77.3 No Training
26. McGowan 26 158 68.9 18.1 41.5 91.1 No Training
- 87 -
(e) DiscuDGion: (Ciiart Ho. 3):
The Civil Gerrice system does not have a passing
mark for the physical exainination, as the grade received
is merely added in vith the other phases of the test.
For convenience of this experiment, a grade of
75/^ is to be considered as a passing grade in tiie Civil
Service test. 'Ye find that every man tailing the ph^ sical
test has passed the examination, as the grades range from
76,3 to 100;5.
In the Sargent's Test, we find that the highest
grade or index is G1.7, and the lowest 41,5. Tne follo-;7ing
table shows the correlation of the two tests:
Table IIo. 1: (Tivision of men tested into 3 groups),
X - In sa;ae division; for both tests,
# - Eash test in adjoining division,
- Division betv/een the two tests.
- 88 -
- 89 -
Table No, 2: Claoailication.
Showing Correlation of Sargent's and Civil Service
Teste - grading and clasi^ification.
- 90 -
In Class "A" , five out of ten cases showed a very
distinct relation between the two tests. Tne Sargent Test
for thooe five cases shows an index ranging from 61.7 down
to 53.5, wh.le in the Civil Service Test they range from
10 to 98,^.
The mean average in this class for the Sar^ient Test
is 56.5 and that of the Civil Service Test is 98.6.
In Class "B" six out of ten caaeo proved as indicated
above. The range in the Sargent Test extended from 51.6
to 49.1, and in the Civil Service Test from 96.5 to 93.7.
The mean average in this class for trie Sargent Test
is 50.2 and in ti^e Civil Service Teat 93.4.
In Class "C" tixreo out of seven cases proved a true
relation between the two tests. The range in Sargent Test
was from 48.8 to 41.5, and in the Civil Service test from
91.1 to 76.3
The mean average for the Sargent Test was 43.0 and
81,5 in the Civil Service Tes.
Therefore, we may consider a grade 93. 6;% in the
Civil Service physical exa::.ination to be an indication of
physical efficiency which corresponds to a physical
efficiency index of 56.5 in tiie Sargent's Test.
Liiiiewise, 93.4 - Civil Service, corresponds to 50,2
in the Sargent's Test, and 81,5 in Civil Service to 43.
in the Sargent's Test.
^'ith the aid of the above, the followi/.g scale has
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Civil Service Sarcent's Civil Service Sart;ont»o
Now with this correlating; scale, it is possible to
give a Group of policeman the Sarijent's Test and compare
the results with what is considered to be the stsmdard
physical requirements for a policeman, as indicated by the
Civil Service physical tests.
The Sarcent Test being very simple and not requiring
much equipment, therefore, may be used as a periodical
physical efficiency test for tr.e policeman witixout imposing
a hardship upon him or the department.
- 92 -
(h) Explanation of Chart No. 4. (Sargent's Test
given to a group of South Pari: and City Police .en.)
In this experiment, the object is to dutcr;uine the
physical efficiency of a number of policemen by means of
the Saigent's Test, and to put these ficures in terms of
the Civil Service physical tests. As has been stated
previously in this thesis, the Civil Service physical test
is supposed to be a test of a nan's ability to perform the
duties of a policeman. :
The men on Chart No. 3 are about l/lOth of the men
who took the South Parks Civil Service physical test in
the class in which these :nen were tested.
Out of all the men tested, only the best of the
group will be api^ointed. This means that tne men in Class
"A" (sec classification" will more than likely be the men
selected, all ot^.er things being equal. However, some of
these men may fail in other subjects, so in order to be
considerate. Class "B" might be selected as the average man
appointed. This would mean tiiat tne average policeman
should score an index of 50.2 in the Sargent's Test or 93.4
in the Civil Service tests. But some men may be appointed
in Class "C which means that they begin with an index of
43. or 81.5 in the Civil Service.
(i) Chart No. 4:
Sargent' G Test Applied to Group of Policemen:
60. F.R. Smith
17. T. Lyons
72. Lt. McCarthy
70. Lt. Condon
69. Sgt. Sloop
22. A. O'Brien
- 94 -
Classification of these policei according to tr^eir
Class "A" ; Uen making 56.5 or better in the Sargent* 8
Test. Those falling in this class are to be considered
physically efficient and -Tiost callable of purforming the
duties of a policenian. Three of the seventetin policemen
tested fall in t^.is class. Each police station ougiit to
clacaify their ;nen perioaically by means of tne Sar^^ent's
Test and keep the men who fail into Class "A" as a select
group to be used on special occasions vmere the best physical
men aiay oe needed. Some sr.ecial concession could be made to
these :.ien as an incentive to others to keep up their x^iysical
Class "B" ; :'.en making 50.2 or more, and less than
56.5 in the Sargent's Test. Those falling in tiiis class are
considered to be physically efficient to perform the duties
of a policeman but who iiave not quite reached the ideal
condition. But one of the seventeen men tested falJc in this
Class "C" ; lien iiiaking between 43. and 50.5 index in
Sargent's Test. The men in this class are considered to be
physically efficient in a small degree but who are still
capable of performing police duty with a degree of physical
efficiency. The men in this class probably have some minor
defects w-.ich undoubtedly are remediable or preventable and
which keeps taem from the higher class. In some cases it is
- 95 -
overweleht; in othcro it is un^erz/eiijht, or, in others it
may be lack of exercise or ovcr-exercise; or it inay be due
to age for -.vhich some allowance should be iiAde.
Class "D" : Hen i'da.^.int; unaer 43* index in the Gargcnt's
Test* The ir^en failing into tnis clacD are conoidered piiys-
icaliy inefficient and snould be compelled to take Ett;ps
w. ich will bring them into a higxier class. These steps may
be physical exercise, cnan^ie of x^abits, rest or meaical
- 96 -
IX. CONCLUSION REGARDING PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE
POLICEMAN OF CHICAGO.
A certain minority of the men are physically efficient
aftei' they are in the department a year or more. The majority
are physically inefficient - just below the mark as set by
the Civil Service as the standard of physical efficiency.
There is a certain minority of this group that are far below
the danger line.
All of these men at one time had the capacity to
measure up to the standards of the department, or they would
not have been employed. The question as to why they have
become physically inefficient may be summed up in the
1. Uninterested in own physical efficiency.
2. Lack of health information.
3. Irregular hours of eating, sleeping and working,
4. No regular play or wholesome recreation.
6. Lack of regular, vigorous exercise.
7. Lack of team spirit.
Summing up the condition of the Chicago Police De-
partment in its relation to physical efficiency, we find
that here is a large group of men between the ages of 21
ajid 60 who are required to live a very irregular life
- 97 -
because of the nature of the work; the men believing that
the city is responsible for their ;.hysical condition, and
the city leaving it to the men. As a consequence, the men
become physically ineflicient unless tney have the
intellicence to take t.ic matter in their own hands.
Therefore, it would seem that one of the fundamental
questions to be answered first, is: TTho is responsible
for the policeman's inefficiency? Some will say tnat the
man should take it upon himself, and otners will say that
because his efficiency concerns the public directly; the
public should see to it that he is efficient.
It has not been the purpose of the writer to say
which is right, but merely tnrow a little light on the
subj ect :
A. Some reasons why the policeman should be
interested in his physical efficiency.
1. Physical inefficiency shows susceptibility
2. Disease means physical discomfort, loss of
vitality and loss of money.
3. Causes premature death which causes poverty
and dispondency of members of family.
B. Reasons why the city should be interested in
the physical efficiency of the policeman:
1. Physical inefficiency means inefficient
2. Inefficient police service mesms an increase
in crime and immorality.
- 98 -
3. Crime and immorality effects the pocketbook
and health of the public.
This much, therefore, is certain: that physical
inefficiency effects both the individual and the public and
both are responsible to some extent.
Value of Physical Training to Individual.
According to the biologic or physiologic theory,
which is the theory of to-day, the body is a machine with
which :aan does his work in the world. Care and training
are requisite in order that it riiay be perfect in all its
parts at maturity. John Lock, in the sixteenth century,
says, "keep the body in strength and vigor, so triat it may
be able to obey and execute the orders of the mind". He
would be uttering the same truth to-day to the Police, if
he were here. Rousseau, back in the seventeenth century,
says, "a good servant ought to be robust. Tr^e weaker the
body, the more it commands; the stronger it is, the better
Professor Tyler, in his "Growth and Education*
presents the strongest argument in favor of physical
training that can be drawn from the biologic point of view.
He shows the part that motor activity has played in the
evolution of organs through the ascending scale of animal
life. "The development of the heavy muscles", he concludes,
"necessitated and stimulated the development of our vital
organs, heart, lungs and kidneys." These form a closely
related group. Muscular exercise is still necessary for
- 99 -
the development eind maintenance of tiaese orcans in the
individual or child. They respond to muscular stimuli as
they never do to the brain. This ajjpears to oe one of the
stroneest argtiments in favor of physical training for the
adult (:.olicoman) .
Further proof as to the value of physical training
to the mental life of tiie individual is set forth by Tyler.
He says the muscular system is the "key to the development
of the brain. Nervous development followed the increase
of locomotion and increased the use of the senae ort^ans,
especially of the eyes. Mental exercise of a logical sort
has added only the finishing touches to the development
of the brain. It originated as the switch board bet.veen
ti.e sensory stimuli and muscular movement. It ie still a
part of the great neuro- muscular system. Brain and muscle
are never divorced in the action of h.althy higher ani.aals
or of the msLn* .
The Public's Part.
Now, because the public is affected unpleasantly by
something for which it is partly responsible and over which
it has control, it would then seem logical that the public
take the first positive steps toward remedying the cause
of the physical efficiency of the police. Following this,
the police should then concede to some plan ti^at would
give them the vim, vigor and vitality which means physical
efficiency and a longer life.
- 100 -
There are a number of ways that the public jnifiht
bring about this better condition:
1. Take legislative measures, i.e., make Civil
Service laws that will require the policeman to
be given regular physical training ana lessons
in Health eiucation, under trained physical
2. Interest various institutions, such as tne
Y.M.C.A. , social settlements, ati.letic clubs,
parks and playgrounds, etc., in the physical
welfare of the police, so tiiat tiiey will put a
place on their program that vvill accomuiodate
the police and hold and interest them.
- 101 -
X. THE Y. M. C. A. AND THE POLICE.
In a recent issue of "Physical Training" (Vol. XX,
No. 3, pp. 87-90), we read the report of the Seventh
Meeting of the Physical Directors* Society of the Y.M.C.A.
of North America, which took place at Atlantic City, IJ.J.,
Nov. 20, 1922. Here we find mention of work with National
Guard Units within the company or reciment, with or without
an Armory, and at Camps; work with visiting fleets, etc.
We also find a more detailed report of the Ai-my and
Navy Association with a statcinent of their objective which
reads: "In the physical work program of the Army and Navy
Y.M.C.A., we seek to co-operate with the officers of the
Army and Navy in developing the highest type of morale
among the men of the Service by means of physical exercise,
recreation and education".
"Further, in harmony with the supreme objective of
the Y.M.C.A., the Physical Committee and staff should seek
to promote the program in such away that will develop the
finest physical, mental and spiritual efficiency so
essential to the making of the best type of virile Christian
Picking up the Chicago newspapers any day, we read
of wesUcnesses in the Police Department which at times are
greatly magnified and at other times greatly belittled.
However, leaving tlie newspapers out of the question, and
speaking of a first hand experience of talking over various
- 102 -
situations with a great number of officers, I find that
there is a wonderful opportunity for the Y.U.C.A. to
adopt a similar objective for work with the Police
Departments of our larger cities.
Dr. Gulick summarizes the objective of physical
education, as follows:
1. Health - cure of disease and prevention of disease.
2. Education - symmetry - muscular strne^th -
endurance - ability - grace (economy
of action) - muucular control -
physical judgjnent - physical courage -
self-possession - expression.
3. Recreation - pleasure in priysical activity -
4. Glory - the glory of being a star athlete.
5. LlTllhood - for the professional man.
Prom the standpoint of health, the physical department
of the Association is capable of administering to the needs
of the policeaan as are few organizations or institutions.
The trained physical director realizes that the nature and
extent of all physical training is determined by the state
of health of the participants, and, tlierefore, every rational
course in such training must have the development of the
human organism in its entirety for its primary object.
This can only be accomplished if the means employed
will give to each organ that which will aid it in the dis-
charge of its peculiar functions and establish a co-ordinated.
- 103 -
organic balance between the organs upon which the condition
of perfect health depends.
To insure the maintenance of this balance, the
training must endeavor to develop the recuperative and re-
sistive powers of the vital organs in such a degree that
each has a surplus of energy at its disposal against which
it may draw in its ovm favor or in favor of the others when
the exigency for such compensation presents itself.
In considering a program of physical training for the
police which will measure up to the foregoing objectives
and purposes of physical education, we must look to the needs
of the individuals body, mind and spirit. We have found
these needs to be riglit in line with the purpose of the
physical department of the Y.M.C.A. However, as in almost
all lines of Y.M.C.A. work, there are some factors relating
to the individual's health which are beyond the power of
the Association to regulate. In this case, it happens to
be the irregularity of ;7orkings hours which change from
month to month. This is a particular handicap to the
policeman as far as getting his proper sleep or rest and
exercise. The sleep, the Association cannot directly remedy
but the exercise it can. This can be done by arranging
clasces so that the men may change from one class to another
class as they are shifted from the various shifts in their
work. In this way, the men could be kept active and a deep
interest created in the -velfare of their personal physical
efficiency. In the gym. classes, short talks on health and
- 104 -
hygiene would add greatly to their ability to keep fit;
particular emphasis being placed upon effects of over-
eating and under- exercising, eto.
Some of the police stations have small gymnasiums
and equipment in the station house, and all that is lacking
is someone to lead the men on. The officers in charge of
the stations are quite willing to have someone come in to
get the men into oome kind of activity, but the gym and
equipment are Just there accumulating dust. Here is a
wonderful opportunity for extension work for the "Y".
\Vhile many of the younger men may not be reached
through regular gym classes, they could be reaches, tiirough
athletics and games. Bach district should have a tjam in
all major sports, and the "Y" could use its quiet periods
to stage these games in the ^jym where possible, or in some
public park or gymnasium.
As the Chicago Association is pushing out Into all
parts of Chicago, there is a great opportunity for public
service in administering to the needs of the police. There
are L^iany problems to be met in getting the ball rolling but
the writer believes that there are enough men in each
district to afford a nucleus for the organization of an
athletic council which would meet with a local Association
physical director to discuss and organize plans for
physical activities in the various stations.
Ihe Sargent Test is one means of getting men to real-
ize their physical efficiency as shown by the interest taken
- 105 -
"by men of the Englewood Station. Had the writer been able
to arranee his time so as to be at the Snelewood Station
at times when the men were going on and off duty, he would
have i^iren the majority of the men at the station the test.
This may be a good activity for a local physical director
to introduce as a competitive event which would arouse an
interest among the men.
In prescribing exercise for the men, they may be
divided into three clasnes:
Class I. Correcponding to Class "A" and "B" on
Chart No. 4, page 93.
Class II. Corresponding to Class "C" on Chart No. 4.
Class III. Corresponding to Class "D" on Chart No. 4.
The following chart is an attempt to give the types
of exercise and the amount of each type to be given in one
The figures appearing under "Speed", "strength", etc.,
indicate the degree to which this element is to hold sway in
the pliase of activity opposite v/hich it appears. Each
Group has its o^rm particular needs, and, therefore, in some
phases of activity there is a difference in emphasis as
shown by the figures:
- 106 -
Evaluation of Physical Activities and Prescribing
Than to Groups:
UKl^ Oi' GROUP
The figures appearing under "speed", "streneth", etc.
and being opposite "Need of Group" designates the degree to
which the elements should appear in the prograa.
Under "Group needs" at the upper extrejne riiJit, are the
figures reprosenting the percent of each activity that should
be represented in the program to aeet the needs of the differ-
ent groups of policemen. These are figured on a basis of 10.
- 107 -
In oany caoes, combinations could be arran^jied. such as
boxine movements in calisthenics, nmning and calisthenics,
mass games with wrestling, i.e., pulling and tugcing, mass
games with running, such as relays.
The writer has not presented this chart as an absolute
and thorough evaluation of the activities and the prescribing
of same to the different groups, but it is merely an attempt
to show the method of meeting the needs of any groups, as
suggested by M. I. Foss in "Physical Training", June, 1922.
However, as has been ahown early in this work, the
policeman's duties correspond to various forms of athletics.
These duties are irregular and unless the policeman goes
tiirough the act of performing these duties he ought to have
some activity that is si-;J.lar to them.
The regular Y.M.C.A. physical program, when carried
out effectively, can be ioade to give the policexiian all the
practice and training that he needs. But, as has been said
before, the police are handicapped in that they cannot
arrange their time to attend the regular scheduled classes
of the Association.
- 103 -
Prof. Bobbitt - "Curriculum-Malcing in Los Aneeies*.
De-.vey - "How We Thini:''.
Dev/ey - "Democracy and Education".
Annual Report of Civil Service Coamiasion, City of Chicago.
Illinois Health Insurance Report, p. 156.
licKenzie - '•Exercise and Health", p. 371.
Dr. Hutchinson - "Exercise an Health".
Fisher and Pisk - "How To Live", p. 30.
Harry Einerson Posdick - "Twelve Tests of Ciiaracter" -
Ladies' Hoae Journal.
John rill Robertson, M.D. - Home Journal of Health and
Sanitation, p. 13.
International Encyclopedia - "Police".
Chicaco Tribune - February 29, 1923.
Chicago Daily News -
L. F. Puld - American Physical Education Review - Vol. 14,
Civil Service Text Book, City of Chicago,
Col. H. J. Kochler - ':7e3t Point Manuel of Disciplinary
Raycroft - "Mass Physical Training".
Civil Service Laws and Rules for City of Chicago, June 1, 1920
Mind and Body - Vol. 29, p. 395.
Dr. Sargent - American Physical Education Beview.
Arnold Bennett - "Take Stock of Yourself" - Pictorial Review -
TcKenzie - "Exercise and Health".
- 109 -
Brubaker - "Textbook of Physiology*.
"Physical Training" - Vol. 10, NO. 3; Report of
Physical Eiroctors* Society of Y.M.C.A. of America
B. Christy - "Goin^; Afoot".
1923 Ru 6212
Physical aspects of physical educatior